Articles

Find answers to your health-related questions in our Ilustrated Health Encyclopedia

  • Poison

    Jack-in-the-pulpit poisoning

    A Jack-in-the-pulpit is a plant belonging to the species Arisaema triphyllum. This article describes poisoning caused by eating parts of this plant. The roots are the most dangerous part of the plant. This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison ...

  • Disease

    Jaundice

    Jaundice is a condition produced when excess amounts of bilirubin circulating in the blood stream dissolve in the subcutaneous fat (the layer of fat just beneath the skin), causing a yellowish appearance of the skin and the whites of the eyes. With the exception of normal newborn jaundice in the first week of life, all other jaundice indicates overload or damage to the liver, or inability to move bilirubin from the liver through the biliary tract to the gut.

    Jaundice is a yellow color of the skin, mucus membranes, or eyes. The yellow coloring comes from bilirubin, a byproduct of old red blood cells. Jaundice can be a symptom of other health problems.

  • Special Topic

    Jaundice causes

    is a yellow color in the skin, mucus membranes, or eyes. The yellow color comes from bilirubin, a byproduct of old red blood cells. Jaundice is a sign of other diseases. This article discusses the possible causes of jaundice in children and adults. For information on jaundice in very young infants, ...

  • Injury

    Jaw - broken or dislocated

    The most common cause of broken or dislocated jaw is accident or trauma involving a blow to the face. This may be the result of a motor vehicle accident, industrial accident, recreational/sports injury, or other accident. It may also result from assault.  The goal of treatment is proper alignment of the jaw bone so the upper and lower teeth come together normally.  Surgery is often required for moderate to severe fractures to align and immobilize the bone so it can heal.

    A broken jaw is a break (fracture) in the jaw bone. A dislocated jaw means the lower part of the jaw has moved out of its normal position at one or both joints where the jaw bone connects to the skull (temporomandibular joints).

  • Self-Care Instructions

    Jejunostomy feeding tube

    Feeding – jejunostomy tube; G-J tube; J-tube; Jejunum tube

  • Poison

    Jellyfish stings

    Jellyfish are sea creatures that have a nearly see-through (transparent) body with long finger-like structures called tentacles. Stinging cells inside the tentacles can hurt you if you come in contact with them. Some stings can cause serious harm. This is for information only and not for use in the ...

  • Poison

    Jerusalem cherry poisoning

    The Jerusalem cherry is a plant that belongs to the same family as the deadly . It has small, round, red and orange fruit. Jerusalem cherry poisoning occurs when someone eats pieces of this plant. This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison ...

  • Special Topic

    Jet lag prevention

    Jet lag is a combination of symptoms experienced after flying in an airplane, especially on long trips.  Fatigue, irritability, dehydration, and a broken sleep pattern are common symptoms of jet lag.

    Jet lag is a sleep disorder that occurs when the body’s biological clock does not correspond to local time. This is common when traveling across different time zones.

  • Self-Care Instructions

    Jet lag prevention

    Jet lag is a sleep disorder caused by traveling across different time zones. Jet lag occurs when your body’s biological clock is not set with the time zone you are in.

  • Poison

    Jewelry cleaners

    This article discusses the harmful effects that can occur from swallowing jewelry cleaner or breathing in its fumes. This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as ...

  • Poison

    Jimsonweed poisoning

    Jimsonweed is a tall herb plant. Jimsonweed poisoning occurs when someone sucks the juice or eats the seeds from this plant. You can also be poisoned by drinking tea made from the leaves. This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you ...

  • Disease

    Jock itch

    Fungal infections are caused by microscopic organisms (fungi) that can live on the skin. They can live on the dead tissues of the hair, nails, and outer skin layers.

    Jock itch is an infection of the groin area caused by fungus. The medical term is tinea cruris, or ringworm of the groin.

  • Test

    Joint fluid Gram stain

    Joint fluid Gram stain is a laboratory test to identify bacteria in a sample of joint fluid using a special series of stains (colors). The Gram stain method is one of the most commonly used methods to rapidly diagnose bacterial infections.

  • Symptoms

    Joint pain

    Joints, particularly hinge joints like the elbow and the knee, are complex structures made up of bone, muscles, synovium, cartilage, and ligaments that are designed to bear weight and move the body through space. The knee consists of the femur (thigh bone) above, and the tibia (shin bone) and fibula below. The kneecap (patella) glides through a shallow groove on the front part of the lower thigh bone. Ligaments and tendons connect the three bones of the knee, which are contained in the joint capsule (synovium) and are cushioned by cartilage.

    Joint pain can affect one or more joints. See also: (inflammation of joints)

  • Symptoms

    Joint swelling

    Joints, particularly hinge joints like the elbow and the knee, are complex structures made up of bone, muscles, synovium, cartilage, and ligaments that are designed to bear weight and move the body through space. The knee consists of the femur (thigh bone) above, and the tibia (shin bone) and fibula below. The kneecap (patella) glides through a shallow groove on the front part of the lower thigh bone. Ligaments and tendons connect the three bones of the knee, which are contained in the joint capsule (synovium) and are cushioned by cartilage.

    Joint swelling is the buildup of fluid in the soft tissue surrounding the joint.

  • Test

    Joint x-ray

    This test is an of a knee, shoulder, hip, wrist, ankle, or other joint.

  • Disease

    Juvenile angiofibroma

    The mucosa, or mucous membrane, is a type of tissue that lines the nasal cavity. Mucous membranes are usually moist tissues that are bathed by secretions such as in the nose.

    Juvenile angiofibroma is a noncancerous growth of the back of the nose or upper throat.

  • Disease

    Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

    Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) is a term used to describe a common type of arthritis in children. It is a long-term (chronic) disease resulting in joint pain and swelling.