Articles

Find answers to your health-related questions in our Ilustrated Health Encyclopedia

  • Test

    T-cell count

    Blood is drawn from a vein (venipuncture), usually from the inside of the elbow or the back of the hand. A needle is inserted into the vein, and the blood is collected in an air-tight vial or a syringe. Preparation may vary depending on the specific test.

    T cells are a type of white blood cells called lymphocytes. They make up part of the immune system. T cells help the body fight diseases or harmful substances. A test can be done to measure the number of T cells in your blood.

  • Test

    T3 test

    Triiodothyronine (T3) is a thyroid hormone. It plays an important role in the body’s control of metabolism. A laboratory test can be done to measure the amount of T3 in your blood.

  • Test

    T3RU test

    The T3RU test measures the level of proteins that carry thyroid hormone in the blood. This can help your health care provider interpret the results of and blood tests. However, because the free T4 blood test is available, the T3RU test is rarely used anymore.

  • Test

    T4 test

    Blood is drawn from a vein (venipuncture), usually from the inside of the elbow or the back of the hand. A needle is inserted into the vein, and the blood is collected in an air-tight vial or a syringe. Preparation may vary depending on the specific test.

    T4 (thyroxine) is a hormone produced by the thyroid gland. A laboratory test can be done to measure the amount of T4 in your blood.

  • Injury

    Tailbone trauma

    The tailbone (coccyx) is the small bone at the lower tip of the spine.  The most common cause of injury to the tailbone is a backward fall onto a hard surface, such as a slippery floor or ice.

    Tailbone trauma is an injury to the small bone at the lower tip of the spine.

  • Self-Care Instructions

    Tailbone trauma - aftercare

    Coccyx injury: Coccyx fracture

  • Disease

    Takayasu arteritis

    The interior of the heart is composed of valves, chambers, and associated vessels.

    Takayasu arteritis is an inflammation of the aorta — the artery that carries blood from the heart to the rest of the body — and its major branches. See also:

  • Self-Care Instructions

    Taking antacids

    Antacids help to treat heartburn (indigestion). They work by changing the stomach acid that causes your heartburn. You can buy many antacids without a prescription. Liquid forms work faster, but you may like tablets because they are easy to use. All antacids work equally as well, but they can cause ...

  • Special Topic

    Taking care of your back at home

    Rest on a firm surface for several hours to treat and alleviate symptoms of a strained back.  Anti-inflammatory medications (such as ibuprofen) can help, and stretching and strengthening of the back muscles is important to avoid another back injury.

  • Self-Care Instructions

    Taking care of your new hip joint

    Hip arthroplasty – precautions; Hip replacement – precautions

  • Self-Care Instructions

    Taking care of your new knee joint

    Knee arthroplasty – precautions; Knee replacement – precautions

  • Self-Care Instructions

    Taking care of your vascular access for hemodialysis

    Ateriovenous fistula; A-V fistula; A-V graft; Tunneled catheter

  • Special Topic

    Taking iron supplements

    Eating iron rich foods is a key part of treating iron deficiency anemia. However, iron supplements are often needed to build up the iron stores in your body when you have iron deficiency anemia.

  • Self-Care Instructions

    Taking medicine at home - create a routine

  • Questions To Ask Your Doctor

    Taking medicines - what to ask your doctor

  • Self-Care Instructions

    Taking medicines to treat tuberculosis

    Tuberculosis – medicines; DOT; Directly observed therapy; TB – medicines

  • Self-Care Instructions

    Taking warfarin (Coumadin)

    Anticoagulant care; Blood-thinner care

  • Questions To Ask Your Doctor

    Taking warfarin (Coumadin) - what to ask your doctor

    Warfarin (Coumadin) is a medicine that helps keep your blood from clotting. This may be important if you have already had blood clots, or if your doctor is worried that you may form a blood clot. Below are some questions you may want to ask your doctor or nurse to help you when you take warfarin.

  • imagepage

    Taking your blood pressure at home

    After you are diagnosed with high blood pressure, your doctor may ask you to keep track of your blood pressure by measuring it at home. There are devices that are easy to use and can help you monitor your blood pressure at home. Practice with your doctor or nurse to make sure you are taking your ...

  • Poison

    Talcum powder poisoning

    Talcum powder is a powder made from a purified mineral called talc. Talcum powder poisoning may occur when someone accidentally or intentionally breathes in or swallows talcum powder. This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you ...

  • Self-Care Instructions

    Talking to someone with hearing loss

  • Self-Care Instructions

    Talking to your teen about drinking

    Underage drinking – talking; Risky drinking – talking to teens; Alcohol abuse – talking to teens

  • Disease

    Tapeworm - beef or pork

    The digestive system organs in the abdominal cavity include the liver, gallbladder, stomach, small intestine and large intestine.

    Tapeworm is an infection with the tapeworm parasite found in beef or pork.

  • Poison

    Tar remover poisoning

    Tar remover is a chemical product used to get rid of tar, a dark oily material. This article discusses the health problems that may occur if you breathe in or touch tar remover. This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an ...

  • Poison

    Tarantula spider bite

    Many arthropods are capable of carrying disease. This illustration shows some of the general characteristics of arthropods.

    This article describes the effects of a tarantula spider bite. This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at ...

  • Disease

    Tardive dyskinesia

    The central nervous system is comprised of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system includes all peripheral nerves.

    Tardive dyskinesia is a disorder that involves involuntary movements, especially of the lower face. Tardive means “delayed” and dyskinesia means “abnormal movement.”

  • Symptoms

    Taste - impaired

    Taste impairment means there is a problem with your sense of taste. Problems range from distorted taste to a complete loss of the sense of taste. However, a complete inability to taste is rare.

  • Special Topic

    Tay-Sachs - resources

    The central nervous system is comprised of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system includes all peripheral nerves.

  • Disease

    Tay-Sachs disease

    Tay-Sachs disease is a life-threatening disease of the nervous system passed down through families.

  • Test

    TBG level - blood

    Blood is drawn from a vein (venipuncture), usually from the inside of the elbow or the back of the hand. A needle is inserted into the vein, and the blood is collected in an air-tight vial or a syringe. Preparation may vary depending on the specific test.

    TBG level is a blood test to measure the level of a protein that moves thyroid hormone throughout your body. The protein is called thyroxine binding globulin (TBG).

  • Special Topic

    Tdap vaccine

    The Tdap vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (whooping cough). All of these are serious, potentially deadly illnesses caused by bacteria. See also:

  • Self-Care Instructions

    Teenage pregnancy

  • Special Topic

    Teething

    The structure of the tooth includes dentin, pulp and other tissues, blood vessels and nerves imbedded in the bony jaw. Above the gum line, the tooth is protected by the hard enamel covering.

    Teething is the growth of teeth through the gums in the mouth of infants and young children.

  • Symptoms

    Telangiectasia

    Angioma serpiginosum appears most frequently in adolescent females and consists of small, superficial telangiectasias (vascular lesions) in the skin.

    Telangiectasias are small, widened blood vessels on the skin. They are usually meaningless, but may be associated with several diseases.

  • Special Topic

    Television watching

    Television can be a useful tool for parents; it can be used for distraction, substitution, and recreation. Unfortunately, the TV has become a substitute for parent-child interaction and is used in some families as a "baby sitter".

  • Special Topic

    Temper tantrums

    Temper tantrums are unpleasant and disruptive behaviors or emotional outbursts. They often occur in response to unmet needs or desires. Tantrums are more likely to occur in younger children or others who cannot express their needs or control their emotions when they are frustrated.

  • Test

    Temperature measurement

    A thermometer is a useful aid used to measure body temperature. A thermometer is usually filled with mercury.  Mercury in the tube rises when expanded by an increase in body temperature.

    The measurement of body temperature may be helpful for monitoring whether a person is ill, or whether treatment is working. A high temperature is a .

  • Disease

    Temporal arteritis

    There are four carotid arteries, two on each side of the neck: right and left internal carotid arteries, and right and left external carotid arteries. The carotid arteries deliver oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the head and brain.

    Temporal arteritis is inflammation and damage to the blood vessels that supply blood to the head. If the inflammation affects the arteries in your neck, upper body and arms, it is called giant cell arteritis.

  • Disease

    Tendinitis

    A tendon is a fibrous connective tissue which attaches muscle to bone. Tendons may also attach muscles to structures such as the eyeball. A tendon serves to move the bone or structure. A ligament is a fibrous connective tissue which attaches bone to bone, and usually serves to hold structures together and keep them stable.

    Tendinitis is inflammation, irritation, and swelling of a tendon, which is the fibrous structure that joins muscle to bone. In many cases, tendinosis (tendon degeneration) is also present.

  • Surgery

    Tendon repair

    Tendons connect muscles to their bony origins and insertions.

    Tendon repair is surgery to repair damaged or torn tendons.

  • Symptoms

    Tenesmus

    Food passes from the stomach into the small intestine. In the small intestine all nutrient absorption occurs. Whatever has not been absorbed by the small intestine passes into the colon. In the colon most of the water is absorbed from the food residue. The residue is then eliminated from the body as feces.

    Tenesmus is the feeling that you need to pass stools, even though your bowels are already empty. It may involve straining, pain, and cramping.

  • Disease

    Tennis elbow

    This photograph shows the arm bones at the point of articulation (the joint area) between the bone of the upper arm (humerus) and the two bones of the lower arm (radius and ulna).

    Tennis elbow is soreness or pain on the outside (lateral) side of the upper arm near the elbow.

  • Disease

    Tenosynovitis

    Tenosynovitis is inflammation of the lining of the sheath that surrounds a tendon (the cord that joins muscle to bone).

  • Test

    Tensilon test

    Holding your arms above your shoulders until they drop is one exercise that may be performed during the Tensilon test. In this test, the drug Tensilon is administered, and the response in the muscles are evaluated to help diagnose myasthenia gravis or to help differentiate between myasthenia gravis and other conditions.

    The Tensilon test is a method to help diagnose .

  • Disease

    Tension headache

    Headaches are usually caused by either muscle tension, vascular problems, or both. Migraines are vascular in origin, and may be preceded by visual disturbances, loss of peripheral vision, and fatigue. Most headaches can be relieved or ameliorated by over-the-counter pain medications.

    A tension headache is pain or discomfort in the head, scalp, or neck, usually associated with muscle tightness in these areas. Other types of headaches include:

  • Special Topic

    Testes

    The male reproductive structures include the penis, the scrotum, the seminal vesicles and the prostate.

    The testes are two egg-shaped male reproductive organs located in the . They produce sperm and the male hormone, . Related topics:

  • Symptoms

    Testicle lump

    The male reproductive structures include the penis, the scrotum, the seminal vesicles and the prostate.

    A testicle lump is swelling or a growth (mass) in one or both testicles.

  • Symptoms

    Testicle pain

    The male reproductive structures include the penis, the scrotum, the seminal vesicles and the prostate.

    Testicle pain is discomfort in one or both . The pain sometimes radiates to the lower abdomen.

  • Test

    Testicular biopsy

    The male reproductive structures include the penis, the scrotum, the seminal vesicles and the prostate.

    Testicular biopsy is surgery to remove a piece of tissue from the for examination under a microscope.

  • Disease

    Testicular cancer

    The male reproductive structures include the penis, the scrotum, the seminal vesicles and the prostate.

    Testicular cancer is cancer that starts in the testicles, the male reproductive glands located in the scrotum.

  • Disease

    Testicular failure

    The male reproductive structures include the penis, the scrotum, the seminal vesicles and the prostate.

    Testicular failure is when the cannot produce sperm or male hormones. See also:

  • Test

    Testicular self-examination

    The male reproductive structures include the penis, the scrotum, the seminal vesicles and the prostate.

    Testicular self-examination is an examination of the . The testicles (also called the testes) are the male reproductive organs that produce sperm and the hormone testosterone. They are located in the scrotum under the penis.

  • Disease

    Testicular torsion

    The male reproductive structures include the penis, the scrotum, the seminal vesicles and the prostate.

    Testicular torsion is the twisting of the spermatic cord, which cuts off the blood supply to the testicle and surrounding structures within the .

  • Surgery

    Testicular torsion repair

    The male reproductive structures include the penis, the scrotum, the seminal vesicles and the prostate.

    Testicular torsion repair is surgery to untangle a spermatic cord. The spermatic cord is the collection of blood vessels in the scrotum leading to the testicles. If it twists or turns, develops. This torsion (pulling and twisting) blocks blood flow to the testicle.

  • Test

    Testosterone

    A testosterone test measures the amount of the male hormone, testosterone, in the blood. Both men and women produce this hormone.The test described in this article measures the total amount of testosterone in the blood. Another test measures what is called “free” testosterone. As men ...

  • Self-Care Instructions

    Tests and visits before surgery

  • Test

    Tests for H. pylori

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the bacterium (germ) responsible for most ulcers and many cases of stomach inflammation (chronic gastritis).

  • Disease

    Tetanus

    Tetanus is infection of the nervous system with the potentially deadly bacteria Clostridium tetani (C. tetani).

  • Poison

    Tetrahydrozoline poisoning

    Tetrahydrozoline is a form of a medicine called imidazoline, which is found in over-the-counter eye drops and nasal sprays. Tetrahydrozoline poisoning occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally swallows this product. This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management ...

  • Disease

    Tetralogy of Fallot

    The interior of the heart is composed of valves, chambers, and associated vessels.

    Tetralogy of Fallot is a type of congenital heart defect. Congenital means that it is present at birth.

  • Disease

    Thalassemia

    Thalassemia major is an inherited form of hemolytic anemia, characterized by red blood cell (hemoglobin) production abnormalities. This is the most severe form of anemia, and the oxygen depletion in the body becomes apparent within the first 6 months of life. If left untreated, death usually results within a few years. Note the small, pale (hypochromic), abnormally-shaped red blood cells associated with thalassemia major. The darker cells likely represent normal RBCs from a blood transfusion.

    Thalassemia is a blood disorder passed down through families (inherited) in which the body makes an abnormal form of , the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen. The disorder results in excessive destruction of red blood cells, which leads to anemia. See also:

  • Self-Care Instructions

    The day of surgery for your child

    Same day surgery – child; Surgical procedure – child

  • Self-Care Instructions

    The day of your surgery - adult

    Same day surgery – adult; Surgical procedure – adult

  • Self-Care Instructions

    The night before your surgery

  • Self-Care Instructions

    The night before your surgery - children

  • Test

    Therapeutic drug levels

    Therapeutic drug level are laboratory tests to look for the presence and the amount of specific drugs in the blood.

  • Nutrition

    Thiamin

    Thiamine, or vitamin B1, is essential for metabolizing carbohydrates and producing energy.

    Thiamin is one of the B vitamins, a group of water-soluble vitamins that are part of many of the chemical reactions in the body.

  • Poison

    Thiazide overdose

    Thiazide is an ingredient found in certain medications used to treat high blood pressure. Thiazide occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally takes more than the normal or recommended amount of this medication. This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management of an ...

  • Poison

    Thioridazine overdose

    Thioridazine is a medication prescribed to treat serious mental and emotional disorders, including schizophrenia. Thioridazine occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally takes more than the normal or recommended amount of this medication. This is for information only and not for use in the ...

  • Symptoms

    Thirst - absent

    Absence of thirst is a lack of the urge to drink fluids, even when the body is low on water or has an excess amount of salt.

  • Symptoms

    Thirst - excessive

    Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that is necessary for cells to be able to use blood sugar.

    Excessive thirst is an abnormal feeling of always needing to drink fluids.

  • Test

    Thoracentesis

    Thoracentesis is a procedure to remove fluid from the space between the lining of the outside of the lungs (pleura) and the wall of the chest.

  • Disease

    Thoracic aortic aneurysm

    The interior of the heart is composed of valves, chambers, and associated vessels.

    An aneurysm is an abnormal widening or ballooning of a portion of an artery due to weakness in the wall of the blood vessel. A thoracic aortic aneurysm occurs in the part of the body’s largest artery (the aorta) that passes through the chest.

  • Test

    Thoracic CT

    CT stands for computerized tomography. In this procedure, a thin X-ray beam is rotated around the area of the body to be visualized. Using very complicated mathematical processes called algorithms, the computer is able to generate a 3-D image of a section through the body. CT scans are very detailed and provide excellent information for the physician.

    Thoracic CT (computed tomography) is an imaging method that uses x-rays to create cross-sectional pictures of the chest and upper abdomen.

  • Disease

    Thoracic outlet syndrome

    Thoracic outlet syndrome is a rare condition that occurs when there is compression of vessels and nerves in the area of the clavicle. This can happen when there is an extra cervical rib or because of a tight fibrous band that connects the spinal vertebra to the rib. There may be pain in the neck and shoulders, and numbess in the last 3 fingers and inner forearm. Thoracic outlet syndrome is usually treated with physical therapy which helps strengthen and straighten out the shoulders.

    Thoracic outlet syndrome is a rare condition that involves pain in the neck and shoulder, and of the fingers, and a weak grip. The thoracic outlet is the area between the rib cage and collar bone.

  • Test

    Thoracic spine CT scan

    A computed tomography (CT) scan of the thoracis spine is an imaging method that uses x-rays to rapidly create detailed pictures of the middle back (thoracic spine).

  • Test

    Thoracic spine x-ray

    This is the spine and the sacrum with the cervical (neck), thoracic (mid-back), and lumbar (lower back) vertebra.  Notice how the appearance of the vertebra change as you look down the spine.  The change in shape and size reflect the different functions of the neck, mid-back, and lower back.

    A thoracic spine x-ray is an of the twelve chest (thoracic) bones (vertebrae). The vertebrae are separated by flat pads of cartilage that cushion them.

  • Test

    Throat swab culture

    Structures of the throat include the esophagus, trachea, epiglottis and tonsils.

    A throat swab culture is a laboratory test done to identify germs that may cause infection in the throat. It is most often used to diagnose strep throat.

  • Disease

    Thromboangiitis obliterans

    Thromboangiitis obliterans is a disorder that leads to obstruction of the blood vessels of the hands and feet. The blood vessels become constricted or totally obstructed because of the inflammation and clots which reduces the availability of blood to the tissues. Thromboangiitis obliterans almost always affects men, 20 to 40 years old, who have a history of smoking or chewing tobacco.

    Thromboangiitis obliterans is a rare disease in which blood vessels of the hands and feet become blocked.

  • Disease

    Thrombocytopenia

    Thrombocytopenia is any disorder in which there is an abnormally low amount of platelets. Platelets are parts of the blood that help blood to clot. This condition is sometimes associated with abnormal bleeding.

  • Disease

    Thrombocytopenia - drug induced

    Blood clots (fibrin clots) are the clumps that result when blood coagulates.

    Thrombocytopenia is any disorder in which there are not enough . Platelets are cells in the blood that help the blood clot. A low platelet count makes bleeding more likely. When drugs or medications are the causes of a low platelet count, it is called drug-induced thrombocytopenia. See also:

  • Special Topic

    Thrombolytic drugs for heart attack

  • Special Topic

    Thrombolytic therapy

    Thrombolytic therapy is the use of drugs to break up or dissolve blood clots, which are the main cause of both heart attacks and stroke.

  • Disease

    Thrombophlebitis

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) affects mainly the veins in the lower leg and the thigh. It involves the formation of a clot (thrombus) in the larger veins of the area.

    Thrombophlebitis is swelling (inflammation) of a vein caused by a .

  • Disease

    Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

    Blood is comprised of red blood cells, platelets, and various white blood cells.

    Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a blood disorder that causes blood clots to form in small blood vessels around the body, and leads to a low platelet count (). See also:

  • Disease

    Thrush

    This microscopic film shows a fluorescent stain of Candida. Candida is a yeast (fungus) that causes mild disease, but in immunocompromised individuals it may cause life-threatening illness. (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.)

    Thrush is a yeast infection of the mucus membrane lining the mouth and tongue.

  • Special Topic

    Thumbsucking

    Thumbsucking

  • Disease

    Thyroid cancer

    This CT scan of the upper chest (thorax) shows a malignant thyroid tumor (cancer). The dark area around the trachea (marked by the white U-shaped tip of the respiratory tube) is an area where normal tissue has been eroded and died (necrosis) as a result of tumor growth.

    Thyroid cancer is a cancer that starts in the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland is located inside the front of your lower neck.

  • Disease

    Thyroid cancer - papillary carcinoma

    This CT scan of the upper chest (thorax) shows a malignant thyroid tumor (cancer). The dark area around the trachea (marked by the white U-shaped tip of the respiratory tube) is an area where normal tissue has been eroded and died (necrosis) as a result of tumor growth.

    Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid is the most common cancer of the thyroid gland.

  • Test

    Thyroid function tests

    One way to evaluate the performance of the thyroid is through blood testing.  The thyroid function test is a group of common tests used to evaluate how the thyroid is functioning..

    Thyroid function tests are common tests used to tell how well your thyroid is working. See the following articles for details:

  • Surgery

    Thyroid gland removal

    The thyroid is a gland located in the neck.  It is a part of the endocrine (hormone) system, and plays a major role in regulating the body's metabolism.  Thyroid disorders are more common in older children and adolescents (especially in girls) than in infants. Most thyroid conditions can be treated medically, but occasionally surgery is required.

    Thyroid gland removal is surgery to remove all or part of the thyroid gland. Your thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped gland that lies over your trachea. This is the tube that carries air into and out of your lungs. Your thyroid is just below your voice box. The thyroid gland is part of the system. ...

  • Disease

    Thyroid nodule

    A thyroid nodule is a growth (lump) in the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland is located at the base of the neck.

  • Poison

    Thyroid preparation overdose

    Thyroid preparations are medications used to treat thyroid gland disorders. occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally takes more than the normal or recommended amount of such medications. This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison ...

  • Test

    Thyroid scan

    This image shows enlargement of the thyroid gland and extension down behind the breastbone (retrosternal space). The image, called a scintiscan, was generated using a radioactive isotope.

    A thyroid scan is a that uses a radioactive iodine tracer to examine the structure and function of the thyroid gland.

  • Disease

    Thyroid storm

    The thyroid gland, a part of the endocrine (hormone) system, plays a major role in regulating the body's metabolism.

    Thyroid storm is a life-threatening condition that develops in cases of untreated thyrotoxicosis (, or overactive thyroid).

  • Test

    Thyroid ultrasound

    Thyroid ultrasound is a sound wave picture of the thyroid gland taken by a hand-held instrument and translated to a 2-dimensional picture on a monitor. It is used in diagnosis of tumors, cysts or goiters of the thyroid, and is a painless, no-risk procedure.

    A thyroid ultrasound is an imaging method used to see the thyroid — a gland in the neck that regulates .

  • Disease

    Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    The thyroid gland, a part of the endocrine (hormone) system, plays a major role in regulating the body's metabolism.

    Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is a condition in which there are episodes of in people who have high levels of thyroid hormone in their blood (, thyrotoxicosis).

  • Special Topic

    Tibia

    The skeleton consists of groups of bones which protect and move the body.

    The tibia is the larger of two in the lower leg (between the knee and ankle). It is sometimes called the shin bone.

  • Disease

    Tibial nerve dysfunction

    Tibial nerve dysfunction occurs when there is damage to the tibial nerve. Symptoms can include numbness, pain, tingling, and weakness of the knee or foot. The tibial nerve is commonly injured by fractures or other injury to the back of the knee or the lower leg. It may be affected by systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus. The nerve can also be damaged by pressure from a tumor, abscess, or bleeding into the knee. Treatment usually depends upon finding the source of the tibial nerve damage.

    Tibial nerve dysfunction is a loss of movement or sensation in the foot from damage to the nerve.

  • Poison

    Tick bite

    Diseases are often carried by ticks, including Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Colorado Tick Fever, Lyme disease, and tularemia. Less common or less frequent diseases include typhus, Q-fever, relapsing fever, viral encephalitis, hemorrhagic fever, and babesiosis.

    Ticks are small, insect-like creatures that can attach to you as you brush past bushes, plants, and grass. Once on you, ticks often move to a warm, moist location, like the armpits, groin, and hair. At that point they typically attach firmly to your skin and begin to draw blood. Ticks can be fairly ...

  • Disease

    Tick paralysis

    Tick paralysis is a loss of muscle function that results from a .

  • Injury

    Tick removal

    The most common early sign of lyme disease is the appearance of a rash on the skin that looks like a "bull's eye". The rash begins as a reddened area near the area of the tick bite. As the rash gets bigger, it clears in the center and develops a red ring around the outer perimeter. Other symptoms include muscle or joint aches, stiff neck, headache, weakness, fever, swollen lymph nodes and other flu-like symptoms.

    Ticks are small, insect-like creatures that live in woods and fields. They attach to you as you brush past bushes, plants, and grass. Once on you, ticks often move to a warm, moist location, like the armpits, groin, and hair. They typically attach firmly to your skin and begin to draw blood for ...

  • Special Topic

    Time out

    Time out is a form of punishment used by parents or teachers in response to undesired behaviors amongst children. When children are put in time out, they are put in a certain designated place to sit for a certain amount of time to reflect upon their behavior.  Time out is an effective disciplinary technique in which no physical punishment is used.

    “Time out” is a technique used by parents and teachers in response to undesired behavior in a child. It involves removing the child from the environment and activities in which the inappropriate behavior occurred, and placing the child in a specific place for a specific amount of time. ...

  • Self-Care Instructions

    Timing of breastfeeding

    Breastfeeding pattern; Nursing frequency

  • Disease

    Tinea capitis

    A fungal infection of the scalp by mold-like fungi is called tinea capitis. Tinea capitis (also called ringworm of the scalp) is a skin disorder that affects children almost exclusively. It can be persistent and very contagious. Symptoms may consist of itching, scaly, inflamed balding areas on the scalp. Oral antifungal medications are required to treat the infection.

    Tinea capitis is a fungal infection of the scalp. It is also called of the scalp. Related skin infections may be found: In a man’s beard In the groin (jock itch) Between the toes (athlete’s foot)

  • Disease

    Tinea corporis

    This picture shows a skin inflammation of the fingers with multiple blisters (vesicles) caused by an allergic reaction to a fungal infection (tinea corporis). (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.)

    Tinea corporis is a skin infection due to fungi. It is also called of the body. Related skin fungus infections may be found: On the scalp In a man’s beard In the groin (jock itch) Between the toes

  • Disease

    Tinea versicolor

    Tinea versicolor is a superficial fungal infection common in adolescent and young adult males. This close-up view demonstrates the typical pattern of the rash.

    Tinea versicolor is a long-term (chronic) .

  • Symptoms

    Tinnitus

    Ear anatomy

    Tinnitus is the medical term for “hearing” noises in your ears when there is no outside source of the sounds. The noises you hear can be soft or loud. They may sound like ringing, blowing, roaring, buzzing, hissing, humming, whistling, or sizzling. You may even think you are hearing air ...

  • Special Topic

    Tips for labor coaches

  • Special Topic

    Titer

    A titer is a measurement of the amount or concentration of a substance in a solution. It usually refers to the amount of found in a patient’s blood.

  • Disease

    TMJ disorders

    This picture shows a normal skull of an adult.

    Temporomandibular joint and muscle disorders (TMJ disorders) are problems or symptoms of the chewing muscles and joints that connect your lower jaw to your skull. See also:

  • Special Topic

    Toddler development

    The range of toddler development is from 1 to 3 years of age.  Toddler safety is very important during this time since  more accidents occur during toddler years than at any other stage of childhood. Consistent discipline is also important at this age, where temper tantrums may be daily occurrences. It is important for the child to learn from experience and be able to rely upon solid, consistent boundaries defining acceptable and unacceptable behaviors.

  • Special Topic

    Toddler test or procedure preparation

    With proper preparation prior to a test or procedure, a toddler's fear and anxiety may be reduced.  Preparing a child for a test may include going through the steps of the procedure, explaining the body part which may be involved, or describing how the test may feel.  Regardless of the test or procedure performed, the child will probably cry. The most helpful reassurance for the child is the parent's presence.

    Helping your young child prepare for a medical test or procedure can reduce anxiety, increase cooperation, and help the child develop coping skills.

  • Poison

    Toilet bowl cleaners and deodorizers poisoning

    Toilet bowl cleaners and deodorizers are substances used to clean and remove odors from toilets. Poisoning may occur when someone swallows toilet bowl cleaner or deodorizer. This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an ...

  • Poison

    Tolmetin overdose

    Tolmetin is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). It is used to help relieve pain, tenderness, swelling, and stiffness due to certain types of arthritis. Tolmetin occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally takes more than the normal or recommended amount of this medication. This is ...

  • Poison

    Toluene and xylene poisoning

    Toluene and xylene are powerful compounds that are found in many household and industrial substances. Toluene and xylene poisoning can occur when someone swallows these substances, breathes in their vapors, or when these substances touch the skin. This is for information only and not for use in the ...

  • Test

    Tongue biopsy

    Structures of the throat include the esophagus, trachea, epiglottis and tonsils.

    A tongue biopsy is surgery to remove a piece of the tongue to look at under a microscope.

  • Symptoms

    Tongue problems

    Black hairy tongue is produced when the papilla (finger-like projections from the surface of the tongue) fail to fall off as they normally do. As the length of the papilla increase, debris collects and bacteria grow, producing the characteristic dark "furry" appearance.

    Tongue problems include pain, swelling, or a change in how the tongue looks.

  • Disease

    Tongue tie

    Food passes from the mouth to the oropharynx (back of the throat) to the esophagus.

    Tongue tie is when the bottom of the tongue is attached to the floor of the mouth. This makes it hard to freely move the tip of your tongue.

  • Test

    Tonometry

    The eye is the organ of sight, a nearly spherical hollow globe filled with fluids (humors). The outer layer or tunic (sclera, or white, and cornea) is fibrous and protective. The middle tunic layer (choroid, ciliary body and the iris) is vascular. The innermost layer (the retina) is nervous or sensory. The fluids in the eye are divided by the lens into the vitreous humor (behind the lens) and the aqueous humor (in front of the lens). The lens itself is flexible and suspended by ligaments which allow it to change shape to focus light on the retina, which is composed of sensory neurons.

    Tonometry is a test to measure the pressure inside your eyes. The test is used to screen for .

  • Questions To Ask Your Doctor

    Tonsil removal - what to ask your doctor

    Your child may have throat infections and need surgery to remove the tonsils (tonsillectomy). These glands are located at the back of the throat. The tonsils and the adenoid glands can be removed at the same time. The adenoid glands are located above the tonsils, in the back of the nose. Below are ...

  • Special Topic

    Tonsillectomies and children

  • Surgery

    Tonsillectomy

    The tonsils are made up of lymphoid tissue and help fight against infections.  However, in some people, particularly in children with larger tonsils, these glands can perform less efficiently and cause frequent throat and ear infections or obstruct breathing.  In these cases, surgical removal of the tonsils, a tonsillectomy, is beneficial.

    Tonsillectomy is surgery to remove the tonsils. The tonsils are glands at the back of your throat. The tonsils are usually removed along with your adenoid glands. That sugery is called .

  • Disease

    Tonsillitis

    
Strep throat is the most common bacterial cause of sore throat. Because strep throat can occasionally lead to rheumatic fever, antibiotics are given. Strep throat often includes a fever (greater than 101 degrees Fahrenheit), white draining patches on the throat, and swollen or tender lymph glands in the neck. Children may have headache and stomach pain.

    Tonsillitis is inflammation (swelling) of the tonsils. causes tonsil swelling.

  • Symptoms

    Tooth - abnormal colors

    The structure of the tooth includes dentin, pulp and other tissues, blood vessels and nerves imbedded in the bony jaw. Above the gum line, the tooth is protected by the hard enamel covering.

    Abnormal tooth color is any color other than the white to yellowish-white of normal teeth.

  • Symptoms

    Tooth - abnormal shape

    The structure of the tooth includes dentin, pulp and other tissues, blood vessels and nerves imbedded in the bony jaw. Above the gum line, the tooth is protected by the hard enamel covering.

    An abnormally shaped tooth is any tooth that has an irregular shape.

  • Disease

    Tooth abscess

    The structure of the tooth includes dentin, pulp and other tissues, blood vessels and nerves imbedded in the bony jaw. Above the gum line, the tooth is protected by the hard enamel covering.

    A tooth abscess is a collection of infected material (pus) due to a bacterial infection in the center of a tooth.

  • Special Topic

    Tooth anatomy

    The structure of the tooth includes dentin, pulp and other tissues, blood vessels and nerves imbedded in the bony jaw. Above the gum line, the tooth is protected by the hard enamel covering.

  • Special Topic

    Tooth decay - early childhood

    The structure of the tooth includes dentin, pulp and other tissues, blood vessels and nerves imbedded in the bony jaw. Above the gum line, the tooth is protected by the hard enamel covering.

    Tooth decay in early childhood occurs most often in the upper and lower front teeth (incisors) and can be a serious problem.

  • Symptoms

    Tooth formation - delayed or absent

    The structure of the tooth includes dentin, pulp and other tissues, blood vessels and nerves imbedded in the bony jaw. Above the gum line, the tooth is protected by the hard enamel covering.

  • Symptoms

    Toothaches

    Toothache is pain in or around a tooth.

  • Poison

    Toothpaste overdose

    The structure of the tooth includes dentin, pulp and other tissues, blood vessels and nerves imbedded in the bony jaw. Above the gum line, the tooth is protected by the hard enamel covering.

    Toothpaste is a product used to clean teeth. This article discusses the effects of swallowing a lot of toothpaste. This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as ...

  • Test

    TORCH screen

    The TORCH screen is a group of blood tests that check for several different infections in a newborn. TORCH stands for , , cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex, and HIV, but it can also include other newborn infections. Sometimes the test is spelled TORCHS, where the extra “S” stands for ...

  • Disease

    Torticollis

    Torticollis is a form of dystonia (prolonged muscle contractions) in which the neck muscles, particularly the sternocleidomastoid muscle, contract involuntarily causing the head to turn. Torticollis may occur without known cause (idiopathic), be genetic (inherited), or be acquired secondary to damage to the nervous system or muscles.

    Torticollis is a twisted neck in which the head is tipped to one side, while the chin is turned to the other.

  • Surgery

    Total abdominal colectomy

    Total abdominal colectomy is the removal of the large intestine from the lowest part of the small intestine (ileum) to the rectum. After it is removed, the end of the small intestine is sewn to the rectum.

  • Disease

    Total anomalous pulmonary venous return

    The interior of the heart is composed of valves, chambers, and associated vessels.

    Total anomalous pulmonary venous return is a heart disease that is present at birth () in which none of the four veins that take blood from the lungs to the heart is attached to the left atrium (left upper chamber of the heart).

  • Test

    Total iron binding capacity

    Blood is drawn from a vein (venipuncture), usually from the inside of the elbow or the back of the hand. A needle is inserted into the vein, and the blood is collected in an air-tight vial or a syringe. Preparation may vary depending on the specific test.

    Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to see if you may have too much or too little iron in the blood. Iron moves through the blood attached to a protein called transferrin. This test helps your doctor know how well that protein can carry iron in the blood.

  • Self-Care Instructions

    Total parenteral nutrition

    Hyperalimentation; TPN

  • Special Topic

    Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    Intravenous fluid sites

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses the gastrointestinal tract. Fluids are given into a vein to provide most of the necessary nutrients the body needs. The method is used when a person cannot or should not receive feedings or fluids by mouth. Sick or premature ...

  • Surgery

    Total proctocolectomy and ileal - anal pouch

    Total proctocolectomy and ileal-anal pouch surgery is the removal of the large intestine and most of the rectum. The surgery is done in one or two stages.

  • Surgery

    Total proctocolectomy with ileostomy

    Total proctocolectomy with ileostomy is surgery to remove all of the colon (large intestine) and rectum.

  • Test

    Total protein

    Blood is drawn from a vein (venipuncture), usually from the inside of the elbow or the back of the hand. A needle is inserted into the vein, and the blood is collected in an air-tight vial or a syringe. Preparation may vary depending on the specific test.

    The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes of proteins found in the fluid portion of your blood. These are albumin and globulin. Proteins are important parts of all cells and tissues. Albumin helps prevent fluid from leaking out of blood vessels. Globulins are an important part ...

  • Disease

    Toxic megacolon

    The esophagus, stomach, large and small intestine, aided by the liver, gallbladder and pancreas convert the nutritive components of food into energy and break down the non-nutritive components into waste to be excreted.

    Toxic megacolon is a life-threatening complication of other intestinal conditions. It causes widening (dilation) of the large intestine within 1 to a few days.

  • Disease

    Toxic nodular goiter

    This image shows enlargement of the thyroid gland and extension down behind the breastbone (retrosternal space). The image, called a scintiscan, was generated using a radioactive isotope.

    Toxic nodular goiter involves an enlarged thyroid gland that contains rounded growths called nodules. These nodules produce too much thyroid hormone.

  • Disease

    Toxic shock syndrome

    The uterus is a muscular organ with thick walls, two upper openings to the fallopian tubes and an inferior opening to the vagina.

    Toxic shock syndrome is a severe disease that involves fever, , and problems with the function of several body organs.

  • Disease

    Toxic synovitis

    Toxic synovitis is a condition affecting children that causes and limping.

  • Test

    Toxicology screen

    Blood is drawn from a vein (venipuncture), usually from the inside of the elbow or the back of the hand. A needle is inserted into the vein, and the blood is collected in an air-tight vial or a syringe. Preparation may vary depending on the specific test.

    A toxicology screen refers to various tests to determine the type and approximate amount of legal and illegal drugs a person has taken.

  • Special Topic

    Toxins

    Bacterial infections can lead to the formation of pus, or to the spread of the bacteria in the blood.

    Toxins are substances created by plants and animals that are poisonous to humans. Toxins also include medications that are helpful in small doses but poisonous when used in an large amounts. Most toxins that cause problems in humans are released by germs such as bacteria. For example, is due to a ...

  • Test

    Toxoplasma test

    Blood is drawn from a vein (venipuncture), usually from the inside of the elbow or the back of the hand. A needle is inserted into the vein, and the blood is collected in an air-tight vial or a syringe. Preparation may vary depending on the specific test.

    The toxoplasma test looks for in the blood to a parasite called Toxoplasma gondii. The parasite causes an infection called , which poses a danger to a developing baby if a pregnant women gets it. It is also dangerous in people with AIDS.

  • Disease

    Toxoplasmosis

    Human infection with the toxoplasma gondii protozoan results from ingesting contaminated raw meat or soil, or careless handling of the contents of an infected cat's litter box. An infected pregnant woman can transmit the infection to her fetus (congenital toxoplasmosis).

    Toxoplasmosis is an infection due to the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. This article discusses toxoplasmosis in adults or adolescents. For information on toxoplasmosis in babies, see:

  • Disease

    Tracheal rupture

    The major features of the lungs include the bronchi, the bronchioles and the alveoli. The alveoli are the microscopic blood vessel-lined sacks in which oxygen and carbon dioxide gas are exchanged.

    A tracheal or bronchial rupture is a tear or break in the windpipe (trachea) or bronchial tubes, the major airways leading to the lungs. A tear can also occur in the tissue lining the windpipe.

  • Disease

    Tracheitis

    Tracheitis is a bacterial infection of the windpipe (trachea).

  • Surgery

    Tracheoesophageal fistula and esophageal atresia repair

    Tracheoesophageal fistula and esophageal atresia repair is surgery to repair two birth defects in your esophagus and trachea. Your esophagus is the tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach. Your trachea, or windpipe, is the tube that carries air to the lungs. These defects usually occur ...

  • Disease

    Tracheomalacia - acquired

    Acquired tracheomalacia is a weakness and floppiness of the walls of the windpipe (trachea) that develops after birth. See also:

  • Disease

    Tracheomalacia - congenital

    Congenital tracheomalacia is a weakness and floppiness of the walls of the windpipe (trachea), which is present at birth.

  • Surgery

    Tracheostomy

    A tracheostomy is a surgical procedure to create an opening through the neck into the trachea (windpipe). A tube is usually placed through this opening to provide an airway and to remove secretions from the lungs. This tube is called a tracheostomy tube or trach tube.

  • Self-Care Instructions

    Tracheostomy care

  • Self-Care Instructions

    Tracheostomy tube - eating

    Trach – eating

  • Self-Care Instructions

    Tracheostomy tube - speaking

    Trach – speaking

  • Disease

    Trachoma

    The eye is the organ of sight, a nearly spherical hollow globe filled with fluids (humors). The outer layer or tunic (sclera, or white, and cornea) is fibrous and protective. The middle tunic layer (choroid, ciliary body and the iris) is vascular. The innermost layer (the retina) is nervous or sensory. The fluids in the eye are divided by the lens into the vitreous humor (behind the lens) and the aqueous humor (in front of the lens). The lens itself is flexible and suspended by ligaments which allow it to change shape to focus light on the retina, which is composed of sensory neurons.

    Trachoma is a bacterial infection of the eye.

  • Special Topic

    Traction

    As a general term, traction means pulling on part of the body. Most often, traction uses mechanical force (sometimes generated by weights and pulleys) to put tension on a displaced bone or joint, such as a dislocated shoulder, to put it back in position and keep it still. Traction is also used to ...

  • Disease

    Transfusion reaction - hemolytic

    A complication of blood transfusion where there is an immune response against the transfused blood cells.

    A hemolytic transfusion reaction is a serious problem that occurs after a patient receives a transfusion of blood. The red blood cells that were given to the patient are destroyed by the patient’s immune system. There are other types of allergic transfusion reactions that do not cause .

  • Disease

    Transient familial hyperbilirubinemia

    Transient familial hyperbilirubinemia is a metabolic disorder that is passed down through families. Babies with this disorder are born with severe jaundice.

  • Disease

    Transient ischemic attack

    A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is caused by a temporary state of reduced blood flow in a portion of the brain. This is most frequently caused by tiny blood clots that temporarily occlude a portion of the brain.  A primary blood supply to the brain is through two arteries in the neck (the carotid arteries) that branch off within the brain to multiple arteries that supply specific areas of the brain.  During a TIA, the temporary disturbance of blood supply to an area of the brain results in a sudden, brief decrease in brain function.

    A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is when blood flow to a part of the brain stops for a brief period of time. A person will have -like symptoms for up to 24 hours, but in most cases for 1 – 2 hours. A TIA is felt to be a warning sign that a true stroke may happen in the future if something is ...

  • Disease

    Transient tachypnea - newborn

    Transient tachypnea is a respiratory disorder usually seen shortly after delivery in full- or near-term babies. Transient means it is short-lived (usually less than 24 hours). Tachypnea means rapid breathing (most normal newborns take 40 – 60 breaths per minute).

  • Disease

    Transient tic disorder

    The central nervous system is comprised of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system includes all peripheral nerves.

    Transient tic disorder is a temporary condition in which a person makes one or many brief, repeated, difficult to control movements or noises (tics).

  • Test

    Transillumination

    Transillumination is the shining of a bright light through a body cavity or organ for diagnostic purposes.  Transilllumination can be used on the head, scrotum, or chest in the premature or newborn infant, or the breast in an adult female.

    Transillumination is the shining of a light through a body area or organ.

  • Surgery

    Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS)

    Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is a procedure to create new connections between two blood vessels in your liver. You may need this procedure if you have severe liver problems.

  • Special Topic

    Translocation

    Humans have 46 chromosomes. There are a total of 23 pairs of chromosomes or 46 total chromosomes. Chromosomes are made up of long strands of DNA which contain all the body’s genes.

    Translocation means a change in location. It usually refers to genetic translocations, in which part of a chromosome is transferred to another chromosome. This type of translocation results in changed and often flawed chromosomes. In another type of translocation, two chromosomes will trade pieces ...

  • Disease

    Transplant rejection

    Antigens are large molecules (usually proteins) on the surface of cells, viruses, fungi, bacteria, and some non-living substances such as toxins, chemicals, drugs, and foreign particles. The immune system recognizes antigens and produces antibodies that destroy substances containing antigens.

    Transplant rejection is a process in which a transplant recipient’s immune system attacks the transplanted organ or tissue.

  • Special Topic

    Transplant services

    Transplantation is a procedure that is done to replace one of your organs with a healthy one from someone else. The surgery is only one part of a complex, long-term process. Several experts will help you prepare for the procedure, and make sure you are comfortable before, during, and after surgery.

  • Disease

    Transposition of the great vessels

    The interior of the heart is composed of valves, chambers, and associated vessels.

    Transposition of the great vessels is a heart defect that occurs from birth (congenital). The two major vessels that carry blood away from the heart — the aorta and the pulmonary artery — are switched (transposed).

  • Surgery

    Transurethral resection of the prostate

    The male reproductive structures include the penis, the scrotum, the seminal vesicles and the prostate.

    Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is surgery to remove all or part of the prostate gland, to treat an . See also:

  • Test

    Transvaginal ultrasound

    External structures of the female reproductive anatomy include the labium minora and majora, the vagina and the clitoris. Internal structures include the uterus, ovaries and cervix.

    Transvaginal ultrasound is a test used to look at a woman’s reproductive organs, including the uterus, ovaries, and . Transvaginal means across or through the vagina.

  • Special Topic

    Traumatic events

    A traumatic event is an experience that causes physical, emotional, psychological distress, or harm. It is an event that is perceived and experienced as a threat to one’s safety or to the stability of one’s world. A traumatic event may involve: A move to a new location Death of a friend, ...

  • Self-Care Instructions

    Traumatic events and children

  • Disease

    Traumatic injury of the bladder and urethra

    A catheter (a hollow tube, often with an inflatable balloon tip) may be inserted into the urinary bladder when there is a urinary obstruction, following surgical procedures to the urethra, in unconscious patients (due to surgical anesthesia, coma, etc.), or for any other problem in which the bladder needs to be kept empty (decompressed) and urinary flow assured.

    Traumatic injury of the bladder and urethra involves damage caused by an outside force.

  • Special Topic

    Traveler's guide to avoiding infectious diseases

    Different areas of the world have different diseases and different prevalence rates of diseases. Travelers going to foreign countries may encounter diseases to which they have no natural immunity and should take any possible precautions.

  • Nutrition

    Traveler’s diarrhea diet

    Traveler’s diarrhea is loose, watery stools. People can get traveler’s diarrhea when they visit places where the water is not clean or the food is not handled safely. This can include third-world or developing countries in Latin America, Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. This article ...

  • Self-Care Instructions

    Traveling with breathing problems

  • Nutrition

    Traveling with children

    Traveling with children presents special challenges. It disrupts familiar routines and imposes new demands. Planning ahead — and involving children in the planning — may lessen the stress of travel.

  • Poison

    Trazodone hydrochloride overdose

    Trazodone is an antidepressant medication. Trazodone occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally takes more than the normal or recommended amount of this medication. This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an ...

  • Disease

    Treacher-Collins syndrome

    Treacher-Collins syndrome is a condition that is passed down through families (hereditary) that leads to problems with the structure of the face.

  • Symptoms

    Tremor

    Muscular atrophy is the decrease in size and wasting of muscle tissue.  Muscles that lose their nerve supply can atrophy and simply waste away.

    A tremor is a type of shaking movement. A tremor is most often noticed in your hands and arms, but it may affect any body part (even your head or voice). There are three main types of tremors: Resting (or static) tremors: These tremors are present when your muscles are resting. The tremor may go ...

  • Self-Care Instructions

    Tremor - self-care

    Shaking

  • Disease

    Trench mouth

    The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. Abnormally shaped teeth can result from many different conditions. Specific diseases can have a profound effect on tooth shape, tooth color, time of appearance, or absence of teeth.

    Trench mouth is a painful bacterial infection that involves swelling (inflammation) and ulcers in the gums (gingivae).

  • Disease

    Trichinosis

    This is the parasite Trichinella spiralis in human muscle tissue. The parasite is transmitted by eating undercooked meats, especially pork. The cysts hatch in the intestines and produce large numbers of larvae that migrate into muscle tissue. The cysts may cause muscle pain and swelling in the face and around the eyes.

    Trichinosis is infection with the roundworm Trichinella spiralis.

  • Disease

    Trichomoniasis

    The uterus is a muscular organ with thick walls, two upper openings to the fallopian tubes and an inferior opening to the vagina.

    Trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the parasite Trichomonas vaginalis.

  • Disease

    Trichorrhexis nodosa

    At the base of the hair follicle are sensory nerve fibers that wrap around each hair bulb.  Bending the hair stimulates the nerve endings allowing a person to feel that the hair has been moved.  One of the main functions of hair is to act as a sensitive touch receptor.  Sebaceous glands are also associated with each hair follicle that produce an oily secretion to help condition the hair and surrounding skin.

    Trichorrhexis nodosa is a problem in which thickened or weak points (nodes) along the hair shaft cause your hair to break off easily.

  • Disease

    Trichotillomania

    Trichotillomania  is repetitive twisting and twirling of the hair.  The hair loss is usually in a well-defined area with shortened, broken-off hairs and early regrowth of hair.  The scalp is the most commonly involved site, but eyelashes and eyebrows may also be involved.  The hair loss can also be patchy and poorly defined.

    Trichotillomania is hair loss from repeated urges to pull or twist the hair until it breaks off. Patients are unable to stop this behavior, even as their hair becomes thinner.

  • Disease

    Tricuspid atresia

    The interior of the heart is composed of valves, chambers, and associated vessels.

    Tricuspid atresia is a type of heart disease that is present at birth (), in which the tricuspid heart valve is missing or abnormally developed. The defect blocks blood flow from the right atrium to the right ventricle.

  • Disease

    Tricuspid regurgitation

    Tricuspid regurgitation is a disorder involving backflow of blood from the right ventricle to the right atrium during contraction of the right ventricle. It is caused by damage to the tricuspid heart valve or enlargement of the right ventricle.

    Tricuspid regurgitation is a disorder in which the heart’s tricuspid valve does not close properly, causing blood to flow backward (leak) into the right upper heart chamber (atrium) when the right lower heart chamber (ventricle) contracts.

  • Disease

    Trigeminal neuralgia

    The central nervous system is comprised of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system includes all peripheral nerves.

    Trigeminal neuralgia is a nerve disorder that causes a stabbing or electric-shock-like pain in parts of the face.

  • Self-Care Instructions

    Trigger finger

    Digitalstenosing tenosynovitis; Trigger digit; Trigger finger release

  • Test

    Triglyceride level

    Blood is drawn from a vein (venipuncture), usually from the inside of the elbow or the back of the hand. A needle is inserted into the vein, and the blood is collected in an air-tight vial or a syringe. Preparation may vary depending on the specific test.

    The triglyceride level is a laboratory test to measure the amount of triglycerides in your blood. Triglycerides are a type of fat. Your body makes some triglycerides. Triglycerides also come from the food you eat. Leftover calories are turned into triglycerides and stored in fat cells for later use. ...

  • Poison

    Trisodium phosphate poisoning

    Trisodium phosphate is a strong chemical. Poisoning occurs if you accidentally swallow, breathe in, or spill large amounts of this substance on your skin. This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should ...

  • Disease

    Trisomy 13

    Extra digits may be present as an isolated finding, or they may occur as part of a syndrome, in which case other abnormalities are usually present.  The most common form of polydactyly is an extra little finger.

    Trisomy 13 (also called Patau syndrome) is a genetic disorder in which a person has three copies of genetic material from 13, instead of the usual two copies. Rarely, the extra material may be attached to another chromosome (translocation).

  • Disease

    Trisomy 18

    Fingers or toes (digits) may be fused together (syndactyly) or the webbing between them (inter-digital webbing) may extend far up the digits.  Syndactyly is seen commonly between the 2nd and 3rd toes, and is usually associated with a syndrome.

    Trisomy 18 is a genetic disorder in which a person has a third copy of material from 18, instead of the usual two copies.

  • Disease

    Tropical sprue

    The esophagus, stomach, large and small intestine, aided by the liver, gallbladder and pancreas convert the nutritive components of food into energy and break down the non-nutritive components into waste to be excreted.

    Tropical sprue is a condition seen in residents of, or visitors to, tropical areas. It impairs the absorption of nutrients from the intestines, causing . See also:

  • Test

    Troponin test

    The troponin test measures the levels of certain proteins called troponin T and troponin I in the blood. These proteins are released when the heart muscle has been damaged, such as a heart attack. The more damage there is to the heart, the greater the amount of troponin T and I there will be in the ...

  • Disease

    Truncus arteriosus

    The interior of the heart is composed of valves, chambers, and associated vessels.

    Truncus arteriosus is a rare type of heart disease that occurs at birth (), in which a single blood vessel (truncus arteriosus) comes out of the right and left ventricles, instead of the normal two vessels (pulmonary artery and aorta). There are different types of truncus arteriosus.

  • Test

    Trypsin and chymotrypsin in stool

    The digestive system organs in the abdominal cavity include the liver, gallbladder, stomach, small intestine and large intestine.

    Trypsin and chymotrypsin are substances released from the pancreas during normal digestion. When the pancreas does not produce enough trypsin and chymotrypsin, smaller-than-normal amounts can be seen in a stool sample. This article discusses the test to measure trypsin and chymotrypsin in stool.

  • Test

    Trypsinogen test

    Blood is drawn from a vein (venipuncture), usually from the inside of the elbow or the back of the hand. A needle is inserted into the vein, and the blood is collected in an air-tight vial or a syringe. Preparation may vary depending on the specific test.

    Trypsinogen is a substance that is normally produced in the pancreas and released into the small intestine. Trypsinogen is converted to trypsin. Then it starts the process needed to break down proteins into their building blocks (called amino acids). A test can be done to measure the amount of ...

  • Special Topic

    Tryptophan

    Amino acids are either "essential", which must be supplied by food, or "nonessential", which are made in the body.

    Tryptophan is an needed for normal growth in infants and for nitrogen balance in adults. It is an essential amino acid, which means your body cannot produce it — you must get it from your diet.

  • Test

    TSH test

    Endocrine glands release hormones (chemical messengers) into the bloodstream to be transported to various organs and tissues throughout the body. For instance, the pancreas secretes insulin, which allows the body to regulate levels of sugar in the blood. The thyroid gets instructions from the pituitary to secrete hormones which determine the pace of chemical activity in the body (the more hormone in the bloodstream, the faster the chemical activity; the less hormone, the slower the activity).

    A TSH test is a lab test that measures the amount of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in your blood. TSH is produced by the pituitary gland. It tells the thyroid gland to make and release thyroid hormones into the blood.

  • Test

    TSI

    TSI stands for thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin. TSI tells the thyroid gland to swell and release excess amounts of thyroid hormone into the blood. This article discusses the test to determine the amount of TSI in your blood.

  • Surgery

    Tubal ligation

    Surgical sterilization which permanently prevents the transport of the egg to the uterus by means of sealing the fallopian tubes is called tubal ligation, commonly called "having one's tubes tied". This operation can be performed laparoscopically or in conjunction with a Cesarean section, after the baby is delivered. Tubal ligation is considered permanent but reversals can be done in many cases.

    Tubal ligation (or “tying the tubes”) is surgery to close a woman’s fallopian tubes. These tubes connect the ovaries to the uterus. A woman who has this surgery can no longer get pregnant. This means she is “sterile.”

  • Special Topic

    Tubercle

    A tubercle is a small rounded point of a bone. It also refers to a attached to bone, , or skin. The term “tubercle” is less commonly used to refer to skin irritation resulting from a tuberculosis (TB) infection.

  • Disease

    Tuberous sclerosis

    These red (erythematous) elevated skin lesions (papules) are tumors made-up of fibrous tissue (angiofibroma) and occur with tuberous sclerosis.  Tuberous sclerosis affects both the nervous system and the skin (neurocutaneous) and may also produce other skin lesions including shagreen spots, ash-leaf macula, and periungual fibromas (a type of skin tumor).

    Tuberous sclerosis is a group of two genetic disorders that affect the skin, brain/nervous system, kidneys, and heart, and cause tumors to grow. The diseases are named after a tuber- or root-shaped growth in the brain.

  • Disease

    Tularemia

    Diseases are often carried by ticks, including Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Colorado Tick Fever, Lyme disease, and tularemia. Less common or less frequent diseases include typhus, Q-fever, relapsing fever, viral encephalitis, hemorrhagic fever, and babesiosis.

    Tularemia is an infection common in wild rodents that is passed to humans through contact with infected animal tissues or by , biting flies, and mosquitoes.

  • Disease

    Tumor

    A tumor is an abnormal growth of body tissue. Tumors can be cancerous (malignant) or noncancerous (benign).

  • Surgery

    Turbinate surgery

    The inside walls of the nose have 3 pairs of long thin bones covered with thin tissue. These bones are called nasal turbinates. Allergies or other nasal problems can cause the turbinates to swell and block airflow. Surgery can be done to fix blocked airways and improve your breathing.

  • Disease

    Turner syndrome

    Turner syndrome is a genetic condition in which a female does not have the usual pair of two X chromosomes.

  • Self-Care Instructions

    Turning patients over in bed

    Changing a patient’s position in bed every 2 hours helps keep blood flowing to their skin. This helps their skin stay healthy and prevents bedsores. When you turn a patient, it is a good time to check their skin for redness and sores.

  • Poison

    Turpentine oil poisoning

    Turpentine oil is a substance distilled from material that comes from pine trees. Turpentine oil poisoning occurs when someone swallows turpentine oil. This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call ...

  • Disease

    Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome

    Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a rare condition that occurs only in identical twins while they are in the womb.

  • Test

    Tympanometry

    Ear anatomy

    Tympanometry is a test used to detect problems in the middle ear.

  • Disease

    Type 1 Diabetes

    A person with diabetes constantly manages their blood's sugar (glucose) levels. After a blood sample is taken and tested, it is determined whether the glucose levels are low or high. If glucose levels are too low carbohydrates are ingested. If glucose in the blood is too high, the appropriate amount of insulin is administered into the body such as through an insulin pump.

    Type 1 diabetes is a lifelong (chronic) disease in which there is a high level of sugar (glucose) in the blood.

  • Disease

    Type 2 Diabetes

    A person with type 2 diabetes can use exercise to help control their blood sugar levels and provide energy their muscles need to function throughout the day.  By maintaining a healthy diet and sufficient exercise, a person with type 2 diabetes may be able to keep their blood sugar in the normal non-diabetic range without medication.

    Type 2 diabetes is a lifelong (chronic) disease in which there is a high level of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes.An easy way to get more exercise is:The correct answer is all of the above. When it comes to being more active, every movement counts. ...

  • Self-Care Instructions

    Type 2 diabetes - self-care

  • Special Topic

    Types of health care providers

    Health care providers range from generalists to providers who specialize in certain areas of the body or disease.  Any category of medicine or care such as cancer or anesthesia can have a specialist.  Nurses also can specialize in certain areas of medical care.

    This article describes health care providers involved in primary care, nursing care, and specialty care. This is just one way of organizing the many types of health care providers. See the following articles for detailed information on specific types of health care providers:

  • Self-Care Instructions

    Types of ileostomy

    Ileostomy – types; Standard ileostomy; Brooke ileostomy; Continent ileostomy; Abdominal pouch; End ileostomy; Ostomy

  • Disease

    Typhoid fever

    The causative agent of typhoid fever is the bacterium Salmonella typhi.  (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.)

    Typhoid fever is an infection that causes and a . It is most commonly due to a type of bacterium called Salmonella typhi (S. typhi).

  • Disease

    Typhus

    Typhus is a bacterial disease spread by lice or fleas.