Health Library

Welcome to the Scripps health information library. It’s part of our commitment to partnering with you for lifelong wellness.

Here you can read articles on hundreds of health conditions and wellness topics, complete with medical illustrations and links to related symptoms, procedures and conditions.

Visit the library content using the tools below.

  • Disease

    E. coli enteritis

    The esophagus, stomach, large and small intestine, aided by the liver, gallbladder and pancreas convert the nutritive components of food into energy and break down the non-nutritive components into waste to be excreted.

    E. coli enteritis is swelling (inflammation) of the small intestine from Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria. It is the most common cause of travelers’ diarrhea.

  • Special Topic

    Ear - blocked at high altitudes

    Ear anatomy

    The air pressure outside of your body changes as altitude changes. This creates a difference in pressure on the two sides of the eardrum. The result is a feeling of pressure and blockage in the ears.

  • Disease

    Ear barotrauma

    Ear anatomy

    Ear barotrauma is discomfort and possible damage in the ear due to pressure differences between the inside and outside of the eardrum.

  • Symptoms

    Ear discharge

    Ear anatomy

    Ear discharge is drainage of blood, , pus, or fluid from the ear.

  • Test

    Ear drainage culture

    Ear anatomy

    An ear drainage culture is a laboratory test to check for infection-causing substances in a sample of fluid, pus, wax, or blood from the ear.

  • Injury

    Ear emergencies

    The ear is a complicated organ controlling hearing and balance.  When sounds waves reach the ear, they are translated into nerve impulses. These impulses then travel to the brain where they are interpreted by the brain as sound.

    Ear emergencies include objects in the ear canal and

  • Test

    Ear examination

    Ear anatomy

    An ear examination is when a health care provider looks inside your ear using an instrument called an otoscope.

  • Disease

    Ear infection - acute

    Otitis media is an inflammation and/or infection of the middle ear. Acute otitis media (acute ear infection) occurs when there is bacterial or viral infection of the fluid of the middle ear, which causes production of fluid or pus. Chronic otitis media occurs when the eustachian tube becomes blocked repeatedly due to allergies, multiple infections, ear trauma, or swelling of the adenoids.

    Ear infections are one of the most common reasons parents take their children to the doctor. While there are different types of ear infections, the most common is called otitis media, which means an inflammation and infection of the middle ear. The middle ear is located just behind the eardrum. An ...

  • Disease

    Ear infection - chronic

    Otitis media is an inflammation and/or infection of the middle ear. Acute otitis media (acute ear infection) occurs when there is bacterial or viral infection of the fluid of the middle ear, which causes production of fluid or pus. Chronic otitis media occurs when the eustachian tube becomes blocked repeatedly due to allergies, multiple infections, ear trauma, or swelling of the adenoids.

    Chronic ear infection is fluid, swelling, or an infection behind the eardrum that does not go away or keeps coming back, and causes long-term or permanent damage to the ear. See also:

  • Symptoms

    Ear tag

    Many normal children are born with ears that are less than perfect and that may stick out.  However, low-set ears, absent pinna, and abnormal folds can be associated with various conditions.

    An ear (preauricular) tag is a small skin tag or pit in front of the outside part of the ear.

  • Surgery

    Ear tube insertion

    Ear tube insertion involves placing tubes through the eardrums. The eardrum is the thin layer of tissue that separates the outer and middle ear. Note: This article focuses on ear tube insertion in children. However, most of the information could also apply to adults with similar symptoms or ...

  • Questions To Ask Your Doctor

    Ear tube surgery - what to ask your doctor

    Your child is being evaluated for ear tube insertion. This is the placement of tubes in your child’s eardrums. It is done to allow fluid behind your child’s eardrums to drain or to prevent infection. This can help your child’s ears work better. Below are some questions you may want to ask your ...

  • Disease

    Ear wax

    The ear canal is lined with hair follicles and glands that produce a waxy oil called cerumen. Sometimes the glands produce more wax than can be easily excreted out the ear. This extra wax may harden within the ear canal and block the ear.

    The ear canal is lined with hair follicles and glands that produce a waxy oil called cerumen. The wax usually makes its way to the opening of the ear, where it falls out or is removed by washing. Wax can build up and block the ear canal. Wax blockage is one of the most common causes of hearing loss.

  • Symptoms

    Earache

    The ear consists of external, middle, and inner structures. The eardrum and the three tiny bones conduct sound from the eardrum to the cochlea.

    An earache is a sharp, dull, or burning pain in one or both ears. The pain may last a short time or be ongoing. Related conditions include: Otitis media

  • Surgery

    Eardrum repair

    Eardrum repair refers to one or more surgical procedures that are done to correct a tear or other damage to the eardrum (tympanic membrane). Ossiculoplasty is the repair of the small bones in the middle ear.

  • Symptoms

    Earlobe creases

    The earlobe in children and young adults is normally smooth. Creases are seldom seen, but when present, they are sometimes associated with rare inherited syndromes.

    Earlobe creases are superficial lines in the otherwise smooth earlobe of a child or young adult.

  • Special Topic

    Eating disorders - resources

  • Self-Care Instructions

    Eating extra calories when you are sick - adults

    Getting more calories – adults

  • Self-Care Instructions

    Eating extra calories when you are sick - children

    Getting more calories – children

  • Self-Care Instructions

    Eating habits and behaviors

    Eating is important. Food gives our bodies the energy we need to function. For many people, changing eating habits is very difficult. You may have practiced some habits so long, you may not even realize that they are unhealthy; or they simply have become part of your lifestyle, and you do them ...

  • Self-Care Instructions

    Eating out

    Eating out is a part of our busy modern lives. Even though you need to be careful, it is possible to go out and enjoy yourself while staying healthy.If you know how to pick the right foods, and the right amount of foods, you can go to almost any type of restaurant. Be aware that the portion sizes at ...

  • Self-Care Instructions

    Eating right during pregnancy

  • Disease

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever

    Ebola is a virus-caused disease limited to parts of Africa. Within a week, a raised rash, often hemorrhagic (bleeding), spreads over the body. Bleeding from the mucous membranes is typical causing apparent bleeding from the mouth, nose, eyes and rectum.

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever is a severe and often deadly illness that can occur in humans and primates (monkeys, gorillas). Ebola hemorrhagic fever has made worldwide news because of its destructive potential.

  • Disease

    Ebstein's anomaly

    Ebstein's anomaly

    Ebstein’s anomaly is a rare heart defect in which parts of the tricuspid valve are abnormal. The tricuspid valve separates the right lower heart chamber (right ventricle) from the right upper heart chamber (right atrium). The condition is congenital, which means it is present from birth.

  • Disease

    Echinococcus

    This upper abdominal CT scan shows multiple cysts in the liver, caused by dog tapeworm (echinococcus). Note the large circular cyst (seen on the left side of the screen) and multiple smaller cysts throughout the liver.

    Echinococcus is an infection caused by the Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis worm.

  • Disease

    ECHO virus

    Many viruses cause skin rashes (exanthem).  This child was diagnosed with an ECHO virus infection.  (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.)

    Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that lead to and skin rashes.

  • Test

    Echocardiogram

    An echocardiogram is a test that uses sound waves to create a moving picture of the heart. The picture is much more detailed than a plain image and involves no radiation exposure.

  • Disease

    Eclampsia

    Preeclampsia is the development of swelling, elevated blood pressure, sudden and rapid weight gain and protein in the urine during pregnancy. The exact cause is unknown, but it occurs in approximately 5% of the population.

    Eclampsia is (convulsions) in a pregnant woman. These seizures are not related to an existing brain condition.

  • Disease

    Ecthyma

    Ecthyma is a skin infection similar to impetigo, but more deeply invasive. Usually caused by a streptococcus infection, ecthyma goes through the outer layer (epidermis) to the deeper layer (dermis) of skin, possibly causing scars.

    Ecthyma is a skin infection similar to . It is often called deep impetigo because it occurs deep inside the skin.

  • Disease

    Ectodermal dysplasia

    The skin is the largest organ of the body.  The skin and its derivatives (hair, nails, sweat and oil glands) make up the integumentary system. One of the main functions of the skin is protection.  It protects the body from external factors such as bacteria, chemicals, and temperature.  The skin contains secretions that can kill bacteria and the pigment melanin provides a chemical pigment defense against ultraviolet light that can damage skin cells.  Another important function of the skin is body temperature regulation. When the skin is exposed to a cold temperature, the blood vessels in the dermis constrict. This allows the blood which is warm, to bypass the skin.  The skin then becomes the temperature of the cold it is exposed to.  Body heat is conserved since the blood vessels are not diverting heat to the skin anymore.  Among its many functions the skin is an incredible organ always protecting the body from external agents.

    Ectodermal dysplasia is a group of conditions in which there is abnormal development of the skin, hair, nails, teeth, or sweat glands.

  • Disease

    Ectopic ADH secretion

    Ectopic ADH secretion is the release of Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), or vasopressin, from an abnormal place in the body. ADH is a substance produced naturally by the hypothalamus and released by the pituitary gland. This hormone controls the amount of water your body removes. Ectopic means “out ...

  • Disease

    Ectopic Cushing syndrome

    Endocrine glands release hormones (chemical messengers) into the bloodstream to be transported to various organs and tissues throughout the body. For instance, the pancreas secretes insulin, which allows the body to regulate levels of sugar in the blood. The thyroid gets instructions from the pituitary to secrete hormones which determine the pace of chemical activity in the body (the more hormone in the bloodstream, the faster the chemical activity; the less hormone, the slower the activity).

    Ectopic Cushing syndrome is a condition in which a outside the pituitary or produces a hormone called adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).

  • Disease

    Ectopic heartbeat

    An electrocardiogram is a test that measures the electrical activity of the heart. This includes the rate and regularity of beats as well as the size and position of the chambers, any damage to the heart, and effects of drugs or devices to regulate the heart.

    Ectopic heartbeats are small changes in an otherwise normal heartbeat that lead to extra or skipped heartbeats. They often occur without a clear cause and are most often harmless. The two most common types of ectopic heartbeats are: Premature ventricular contractions (PVC) Premature atrial ...

  • Disease

    Ectopic pregnancy

    External structures of the female reproductive anatomy include the labium minora and majora, the vagina and the clitoris. Internal structures include the uterus, ovaries and cervix.

    An ectopic pregnancy is a pregnancy that occurs outside the womb (uterus). It is life-threatening to the mother.

  • Disease

    Ectropion

    The eye is the organ of sight, a nearly spherical hollow globe filled with fluids (humors). The outer layer or tunic (sclera, or white, and cornea) is fibrous and protective. The middle tunic layer (choroid, ciliary body and the iris) is vascular. The innermost layer (the retina) is nervous or sensory. The fluids in the eye are divided by the lens into the vitreous humor (behind the lens) and the aqueous humor (in front of the lens). The lens itself is flexible and suspended by ligaments which allow it to change shape to focus light on the retina, which is composed of sensory neurons.

    Ectropion is the turning out of the eyelid (usually the lower eyelid) so that the inner surface is exposed.

  • Test

    EEG

    The major areas of the brain have one or more specific functions.

    An electroencephalogram (EEG) is a test to measure the electrical activity of the brain.

  • Test

    EGD - esophagogastroduodenoscopy

    
An endoscope is a flexible fiberoptic scope with a light that helps a physician see inside certain internal organs. When the scope is inserted through the mouth, the lining of the esophagus, stomach, and upper duodenum can be visually examined for any abnormalities or growths. A biopsy can be taken through the endoscope of any suspicious areas that are seen.

    Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) is a test to examine the lining of the esophagus (the tube that connects your throat to your stomach), stomach, and first part of the small intestine. It is done with a small camera (flexible endoscope) that is inserted down the throat.

  • Disease

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a group of inherited disorders marked by extremely loose joints, that bruises easily, and easily damaged blood vessels.

  • Disease

    Ehrlichiosis

    Ehrlichiosis is a disease transmitted by a tick infected with Ehrlichia organisms. Symptoms include fever, headache and nausea. The disease is treated with antibiotics and recovery is expected.

    Ehrlichiosis is an infectious disease transmitted by the bite of a .

  • Disease

    Eisenmenger syndrome

    Eisenmenger syndrome

    Eisenmenger syndrome is a condition that affects blood flow from the heart to the lungs in some babies who have structural problems of the heart.

  • Symptoms

    Elbow pain

    This article describes aching or other discomfort in the elbow that is not related to direct injury.

  • Surgery

    Elbow replacement

    Elbow prosthesis

    Elbow replacement is surgery to replace the elbow joint with artificial joint parts ().

  • Special Topic

    Elder care - resources

    Aged nervous tissue is less able to rapidly communicate with other neural tissues.

  • Injury

    Electrical injury

    Shock is a severe condition that occurs when not enough blood flows through the body, causing very low blood pressure, a lack of urine, and cell and tissue damage.

    An electrical injury is damage to the skin or internal organs when a person comes into direct contact with an electrical current.

  • Test

    Electrocardiogram

    An electrocardiogram (ECG) is a test that records the electrical activity of the heart.

  • Special Topic

    Electrocauterization

    Electrocauterization is the process of heating tissue with electricity. The procedure is often used to stop during surgery or after an injury.

  • Surgery

    Electroconvulsive therapy

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a very effective and generally safe treatment for depression and some other health conditions that uses electricity to trigger a seizure.

  • Special Topic

    Electrolytes

    Electrolytes are minerals in your blood and other body fluids that carry an electric charge. Electrolytes affect the amount of water in your body, the acidity of your blood (pH), your muscle function, and other important processes. You lose electrolytes when you sweat. You must replace them by ...

  • Test

    Electrolytes - urine

    The female and male urinary tracts are relatively the same except for the length of the urethra.

    The electrolytes – urine test measures specific chemicals called in urine. It usually measures the levels of calcium, chloride, potassium, or sodium. See also:

  • Test

    Electromyography

    Electromyography is a test that measures muscle response to nervous stimulation.  A needle electrode is inserted through the skin into the muscle. Each muscle fiber that contracts will produce an action potential.  The presence, size, and shape of the wave form of the action potential produced on the oscilloscope, provides information about the ability of the muscle to respond to nervous stimulation.

    Electromyography (EMG) is a test that checks the health of the muscles and the nerves that control the muscles. See also:

  • Test

    Electronystagmography

    Electronystagmography is a test that looks at eye movements to see how well two nerves in the brain are working. These nerves are: Acoustic nerve, which runs from the brain to the ears Occulomotor nerve, which runs from the brain to the eyes

  • Test

    Electroretinography

    The electroretinography (ERG) test measures the electrical activity of the retina to light. It is performed by placing an electrode on the cornea of the eye after it has been anesthetized.  Both hereditary and acquired disorders of the retina can be evaluated with this test. It is also useful in determining if retinal surgery is recommended.

    Electroretinography is a test to measure the electrical response of the eye’s light-sensitive cells, called rods and cones. These cells are part of the retina (the back part of the eye).

  • Poison

    Elephant ear

    Elephant ear plants are indoor or outdoor plants with very large, arrow-shaped leaves. Poisoning may occur if you eat parts of this plant. This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local ...

  • Special Topic

    Elimination patterns

    Elimination patterns describe the regulation, control, and removal of by-products and wastes in the body. The term usually refers to the movement of feces, urine, and sweat from the body.

  • Test

    ELISA

    Blood is drawn from a vein (venipuncture), usually from the inside of the elbow or the back of the hand. A needle is inserted into the vein, and the blood is collected in an air-tight vial or a syringe. Preparation may vary depending on the specific test.

    ELISA stands for enzyme-linked immuno assay. It is a commonly used laboratory test to detect in the blood.

  • Test

    ELISA/Western blot tests for HIV

    Blood is drawn from a vein (venipuncture), usually from the inside of the elbow or the back of the hand. A needle is inserted into the vein, and the blood is collected in an air-tight vial or a syringe. Preparation may vary depending on the specific test.

    HIV ELISA/Western blot is a set of blood tests used to diagnose chronic (HIV).

  • Disease

    Ellis-van Creveld syndrome

    Extra digits may be present as an isolated finding, or they may occur as part of a syndrome, in which case other abnormalities are usually present.  The most common form of polydactyly is an extra little finger.

    Ellis-van Creveld syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that affects bone growth.

  • Surgery

    Emergency airway puncture

    An emergency airway puncture may be performed if all efforts to dislodge an object from the throat have failed. The procedure involves inserting a hollow needle into the throat just below the thyroid cartilage and should only be performed by a medical professional.

    Emergency airway puncture is the placement of a hollow needle through the throat into the airway. It is done to treat life-threatening choking.

  • Special Topic

    Emergency contraception

    The intrauterine device shown uses copper as the active contraceptive, others use progesterone in a plastic device. IUDs are very effective at preventing pregnancy (less than 2% chance per year for the progesterone IUD, less than 1% chance per year for the copper IUD). IUDs come with increased risk of ectopic pregnancy and perforation of the uterus and do not protect against sexually transmitted disease. IUDs are prescribed and placed by health care providers.

    Emergency contraception is a birth control method to prevent pregnancy in women: After a sexual assault or rape When a condom breaks or a diaphragm slips out of place When a woman forgets to take birth control pills When you have sex and do not use any birth control

  • Disease

    Empty sella syndrome

    The pituitary is a gland attached to the base of the brain which secretes hormones that govern the onset of puberty, sexual development and reproductive function.

    Empty sella syndrome is a condition in which the pituitary gland shrinks or becomes flattened.

  • Disease

    Empyema

    The major features of the lungs include the bronchi, the bronchioles and the alveoli. The alveoli are the microscopic blood vessel-lined sacks in which oxygen and carbon dioxide gas are exchanged.

    Empyema is a collection of pus in the space between the lung and the inner surface of the chest wall (pleural space).

  • Disease

    Encephalitis

    Encephalitis is irritation and swelling (inflammation) of the brain, most often due to infections. See also:

  • Disease

    Encopresis

    Encopresis is the voluntary or involuntary passage of stools in a child who has been toilet trained (typically over age 4), which causes the soiling of clothes. See also:

  • Disease

    End-stage kidney disease

    The kidneys are responsible for removing wastes from the body, regulating electrolyte balance and blood pressure, and stimulating red blood cell production.

    End-stage kidney disease is the complete or almost complete failure of the kidneys to work. The kidneys remove waste and excess water from the body.

  • Special Topic

    Endemic

  • Disease

    Endocardial cushion defect

    Ventricular septal defect is a congenital defect of the heart, that occurs as an abnormal opening in the wall that separates the right and left ventricles. Ventricular septal defect may also be associated with other heart defects. Many small defects will close on their own. For those defects that do not spontaneously close, the outcome is good with surgical repair.

    Endocardial cushion defect (ECD) is an abnormal heart condition in which the walls separating all four chambers of the heart are poorly formed or absent. It is a , which means it is present from birth.

  • Disease

    Endocarditis

    The interior of the heart is composed of valves, chambers, and associated vessels.

    Endocarditis is inflammation of the inside lining of the heart chambers and heart valves (endocardium).

  • Test

    Endocervical gram stain

    Endocervical gram stain is a method of identifying bacteria on tissue from the cervix using a special series of stains.

  • Special Topic

    Endocrine glands

    Endocrine glands release hormones (chemical messengers) into the bloodstream to be transported to various organs and tissues throughout the body. For instance, the pancreas secretes insulin, which allows the body to regulate levels of sugar in the blood. The thyroid gets instructions from the pituitary to secrete hormones which determine the pace of chemical activity in the body (the more hormone in the bloodstream, the faster the chemical activity; the less hormone, the slower the activity).

    Endocrine glands release (secrete) hormones into the bloodstream. The endocrine glands include: Adrenal Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas Ovaries Parathyroid Pineal Pituitary Thyroid

  • Test

    Endometrial biopsy

    External structures of the female reproductive anatomy include the labium minora and majora, the vagina and the clitoris. Internal structures include the uterus, ovaries and cervix.

    Endometrial is a procedure in which a tissue sample is taken from the lining of the uterus (endometrium), and is checked under a microscope for any abnormal cells or signs of .

  • Disease

    Endometrial cancer

    External structures of the female reproductive anatomy include the labium minora and majora, the vagina and the clitoris. Internal structures include the uterus, ovaries and cervix.

    Endometrial cancer is cancer that starts in the endometrium, the lining of the uterus (womb).

  • Disease

    Endometriosis

    Endometriosis is the condition in which the tissue that normally lines the uterus (endometrium) grows on other areas of the body causing pain and irregular bleeding.

    Endometriosis is a female health disorder that occurs when cells from the lining of the womb (uterus) grow in other areas of the body. This can lead to pain, irregular bleeding, and problems getting pregnant ().

  • Disease

    Endometritis

    Endometritis is the inflammation and/or irritation of the endometrium. It is usually caused by an infection.

    Endometritis is an inflammation or irritation of the lining of the uterus (the endometrium). It is not the same as . For more information, see:

  • Disease

    Endophthalmitis

    The white portion of the eye (sclera) can appear red when the vessels on the surface become enlarged. This may result from mechanical irritation, environmental irritants (such as extremely dry air, excess sun exposure), allergic reactions, infection, and other medical conditions.

A bright red, uniformly dense bloody area on the sclera results from a small amount of bleeding (hemorrhage) into the conjunctiva. It is a fairly common occurrence and is usually caused by straining or coughing. It generally clears up on its own after a few days.

    Endophthalmitis is a serious condition involving swelling (inflammation) within the eyeball.

  • Special Topic

    Endoscope

    An endoscope is a device with a light attached that is used to look inside a body cavity or organ. The scope is inserted through a natural opening, such as the mouth during a or the rectum for a . A medical procedure using any type of endoscope is called . See also:

  • Surgery

    Endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy

    Endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy (ETS) is surgery to treat sweating that is much heavier than normal. This condition is called . Usually the surgery is used to treat sweating in the palms or face. The sympathetic nerves control sweating. The surgery cuts these nerves to the part of the body that ...

  • Test

    Endoscopy

    There are 4 basic tests for colon cancer: a stool test (to check for blood); sigmoidoscopy (inspection of the lower colon; colonoscopy (inspection of the entire colon); and double contrast barium enema. All 4 are effective in catching cancers in the early stages, when treatment is most beneficial.

    Endoscopy is a way of looking inside the body using a flexible tube that has a small camera on the end of it. This instrument is called an endoscope.

  • Test

    Endotracheal intubation

    Introducing a tube into the trachea to provide an open airway is called endotracheal intubation.

    Endotracheal intubation is a medical procedure in which a tube is placed into the windpipe (trachea), through the mouth or the nose. In most emergency situations it is placed through the mouth. See also: ,

  • Surgery

    Endovascular embolization

    Endovascular embolization is a medical procedure to treat abnormal blood vessels in the brain and other parts of the body. It is an alternative to open surgery. This procedure cuts off the blood supply to a certain part of the body.

  • Disease

    Enlarged adenoids

    Adenoids are masses of tissue located high on the posterior wall of the pharynx. They are made up of lymphatic tissue, which trap and destroy pathogens in the air that enter the nasopharynx.

    The adenoids are lymph tissue that sit in your upper airway between your nose and the back of your throat. They are similar to the tonsils. Enlarged adenoids means this tissue is swollen.

  • Disease

    Enlarged prostate

    The male reproductive structures include the penis, the scrotum, the seminal vesicles and the prostate.

    The prostate is a male reproductive gland that produces the fluid that carries sperm during ejaculation. It surrounds the urethra, the tube through which urine passes out of the body. An enlarged prostate means the gland has grown bigger. Prostate enlargement happens to almost all men as they get ...

  • Self-Care Instructions

    Enlarged prostate - after care

    Benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) is a non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate gland, commonly found in men over the age of 50.

    BPH – self-care; Benign prostatic hypertrophy – self-care; Benign prostatic hyperplasia – self-care

  • Questions To Ask Your Doctor

    Enlarged prostate - what to ask your doctor

    The prostate gland often grows larger as men get older. This is called benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). An enlarged prostate may cause you problems with urinating. Below are some questions you may want to ask your doctor or nurse about your prostate.

  • Self-Care Instructions

    Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems

  • Disease

    Enteritis

    The causative agent of typhoid fever is the bacterium Salmonella typhi.  (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.)

    Enteritis is inflammation of the small intestine.

  • Test

    Enteroclysis

    Enteroclysis is a test performed to examine the small bowel.  A tube is placed down the nose and throat, through the stomach into the small intestine.  When in place, contrast dye is introduced and x-ray images are viewed on a fluoroscopic monitor to visualize how the contrast moves through the bowel structures.  The enteroclysis test is the most complete means of demonstrating whether or not the small intestine is normal when abnormality is suspected.

    Enteroclysis is an examination of the small intestine that looks at how a liquid called contrast material moves through the small intestine.

  • Test

    Enteroscopy

    Small bowel biopsy is a diagnostic procedure in which a portion of the small bowel lining is removed for examination. A flexible fiberoptic or video tube (endoscope) is inserted through your mouth or nose and into the upper gastrointestinal tract where a tissue sample is removed. This test is most often performed to help diagnose diseases of the small intestines.

    Enteroscopy is a procedure used to examine the small intestine (small bowel).

  • Special Topic

    Enterotoxin

    An enterotoxin is a harmful substance produced by certain bacteria that is specifically dangerous to parts of your gastrointestinal tract. The substance enters your stomach and intestines when you eat tainted food or water, causing symptoms such as cramps, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea. See:

  • Disease

    Entropion

    The eye is the organ of sight, a nearly spherical hollow globe filled with fluids (humors). The outer layer or tunic (sclera, or white, and cornea) is fibrous and protective. The middle tunic layer (choroid, ciliary body and the iris) is vascular. The innermost layer (the retina) is nervous or sensory. The fluids in the eye are divided by the lens into the vitreous humor (behind the lens) and the aqueous humor (in front of the lens). The lens itself is flexible and suspended by ligaments which allow it to change shape to focus light on the retina, which is composed of sensory neurons.

    Entropion is the turning in of an edge of an eyelid, causing the lashes to rub against the eye. It usually is seen on the lower eyelid.

  • Special Topic

    Enzyme

    Enzymes are complex proteins that cause a specific chemical change in all parts of the body. For example, they can help break down the foods we eat so the body can use them. Blood clotting is another example of enzymes at work. Enzymes are needed for all body functions. They are found in every organ ...

  • Special Topic

    Enzyme markers

    Enzyme markers are tests for specific activity in the body. Diseases or defects passed down through families can affect how enzymes work. Some enzymes are affected by several genes. Test results are reported as a percentage of normal enzyme activity.

  • Test

    Eosinophil count - absolute

    An absolute eosinophil count is a blood test that measures the number of white blood cells called eosinophils. Eosinophils become active when you have certain allergic diseases, infections, and other medical conditions.

  • Disease

    Eosinophilic fasciitis

    Superficial muscles are close to the surface of the skin. Muscles which lie closer to bone or internal organs are called deep muscles.

    Eosinophilic fasciitis is a very rate syndrome in which muscle tissue under the skin, called fascia, becomes swollen and thick. The hands, arms, legs, and feet can swell quickly. The disease may look similar to but is not related.

  • Symptoms

    Epicanthal folds

    The physical landmarks of the human face are very similar from one face to another.

    An epicanthal fold is skin of the upper eyelid that covers the inner corner of the eye. The fold runs from nose to the inner side of the eyebrow.

  • Disease

    Epidermolysis bullosa

    This picture shows skin lesions (epidermolysis bullosa) over the joints on the hands and feet (interphalangeal joints). Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa is an inherited condition that causes red blisters (bullae) that break open, ooze, form scabs (crusts), and scar.

    Epidermolysis bullosa is a group of disorders in which skin blisters form after a minor injury. It is passed in families.

  • Disease

    Epididymitis

    The male reproductive structures include the penis, the scrotum, the seminal vesicles and the prostate.

    Epididymitis is swelling (inflammation) of the epididymis, the tube that connects the testicle with the vas deferens.

  • Disease

    Epidural abscess

    An epidural is a collection of pus (infected material) between the outer covering of the brain and spinal cord and the bones of the skull or spine. The abscess causes swelling in the area.

  • Special Topic

    Epidural block

  • Surgery

    Epidural injections for back pain

    An epidural steroid injection (ESI) is the delivery of powerful anti-inflammatory medicine directly into the space outside of the sac of fluid around your spinal cord. This area is called the epidural space. It is not the same as an given prior to childbirth.

  • Disease

    Epiglottitis

    This picture shows the organism Haemophilus influenza.  Infections caused by Haemophilus influenza usually occur in children under 6 years old and are extremely serious.  Haemophilus (type B) is responsible for meningitis, periorbital cellulitis, buccal cellulitis and epiglottitis, septic arthritis, osteomyelitis, pericarditis, and bacteremia.  The small organisms live within cells (intracellular) as shown in this picture.  (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.)

    Epiglottitis is inflammation of the tissue that covers the trachea (windpipe). It is a life-threatening disease. See also:

  • Disease

    Epilepsy

    The vagus nerves branch off the brain on either side of the head and travel down the neck, along the esophagus to the intestinal tract. They are the longest nerves in the body, and affect swallowing and speech. The vagus nerves also connect to parts of the brain involved in seizures. In many seizures disorders, electrical stimulation of the vagus nerves may afford relief of symptoms.

    Epilepsy is a brain disorder in which a person has repeated seizures (convulsions) over time. Seizures are episodes of disturbed brain activity that cause changes in attention or behavior. See also:

  • Special Topic

    Epilepsy - resources

    The central nervous system is comprised of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system includes all peripheral nerves.

  • Questions To Ask Your Doctor

    Epilepsy - what to ask your doctor - adult

    You have epilepsy. People with epilepsy have seizures. A seizure is a sudden brief change in the electrical activity in your brain. It leads to brief unconsciousness and uncontrollable body movements. Below are some questions you may want to ask your doctor or nurse to help you take care of yourself ...

  • Questions To Ask Your Doctor

    Epilepsy - what to ask your doctor - child

    Your child has epilepsy. Children with epilepsy have seizures. A seizure is a sudden brief change in the electrical activity in the brain. It leads to brief unconsciousness and uncontrollable body movements. Below are some questions you may want to ask your child’s doctor or nurse to help you ...

  • Disease

    Episcleritis

    The cornea allows light to enter the eye.  As light passes through the eye the iris changes shape by expanding and letting more light through or constricting and letting less light through to change pupil size.  The lens then changes shape to allow the accurate focusing of light on the retina.  Light excites photoreceptors that eventually, through a chemical process, transmit nerve signals through the optic nerve to the brain.  The brain processes these nerve impulses into sight.

    Episcleritis is irritation and inflammation of the episclera, a thin layer of tissue covering the white part (sclera) of the eye. It occurs without an infection.

  • Special Topic

    Episiotomy

  • Self-Care Instructions

    Episotomy - aftercare

  • Disease

    Epispadias

    Epispadias is a rare defect that is present at birth (congenital). It is located at the opening of the urethra. In this condition, the urethra does not develop into a full tube. The urine exits the body from the wrong place.

  • Special Topic

    Epithelium

    Epithelial cells help to protect or enclose organs; some produce mucus or other secretions. Certain types of epithelial cells have tiny hairs called cilia, which help remove foreign substances.

  • Disease

    Epstein pearls

    Epstein pearls are whitish-yellow cysts that form on the gums and roof of the mouth in a newborn baby. A similar kind of skin problem in babies is .

  • Test

    Epstein-Barr virus test

    Blood is drawn from a vein (venipuncture), usually from the inside of the elbow or the back of the hand. A needle is inserted into the vein, and the blood is collected in an air-tight vial or a syringe. Preparation may vary depending on the specific test.

    Epstein-Barr virus test is a blood test to detect to the Epstein-Barr virus () antigens. See also:

  • Surgery

    ERCP

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a procedure used to identify stones, tumors, or narrowing in the ducts. The procedure is done through an .

  • Symptoms

    Erection problems

    The organs of the normal male reproductive system.

    An erection problem is when a man cannot get or keep an erection that is firm enough to have intercourse. You may be unable to get an erection at all. Or, you may lose the erection during intercourse before you are ready. If the condition continues, it is called erectile dysfunction.

  • Self-Care Instructions

    Erection problems - aftercare

    Erectile dysfunction – self-care

  • Symptoms

    Erosion

    The skin is the largest organ of the body.  The skin and its derivatives (hair, nails, sweat and oil glands) make up the integumentary system. One of the main functions of the skin is protection.  It protects the body from external factors such as bacteria, chemicals, and temperature.  The skin contains secretions that can kill bacteria and the pigment melanin provides a chemical pigment defense against ultraviolet light that can damage skin cells.  Another important function of the skin is body temperature regulation. When the skin is exposed to a cold temperature, the blood vessels in the dermis constrict. This allows the blood which is warm, to bypass the skin.  The skin then becomes the temperature of the cold it is exposed to.  Body heat is conserved since the blood vessels are not diverting heat to the skin anymore.  Among its many functions the skin is an incredible organ always protecting the body from external agents.

    Erosion is a breakdown of the outer layers of the skin, usually because of a cut, scrape, or inflammation.

  • Disease

    Erysipelas

    Erysipelas produces a rash that is red, slightly swollen, with very defined borders (well demarcated), warm, and tender to the touch.  In this photograph, the right cheek is involved.  There may be symptoms that affect the entire body (systemic) including fever and chills.

    Erysipelas is a type of skin infection ().

  • Disease

    Erysipeloid

    Erysipeloid is inflammation of the skin () due to bacteria.

  • Disease

    Erythema multiforme

    Erythema multiforme on the hands: These lesions are circular and may appear in concentric rings (often called target lesions). They may be associated with other medical conditions such as infections or medications. Cold sores (herpes simplex on the lips) is often associated with this condition.

    Erythema multiforme is a skin disorder that comes from an or infection.

  • Disease

    Erythema nodosum

    This person has erythema nodosum nodules on the feet. The feet are red and painful. This disorder is associated with drugs or infections.

    Erythema nodosum is an inflammatory disorder that involves tender, red bumps () under the skin.

  • Disease

    Erythema toxicum

    A newly born infant is also called a neonate.

    Erythema toxicum is a common, noncancerous skin condition seen in newborns.

  • Disease

    Erythrasma

    The skin is the largest organ of the body.  The skin and its derivatives (hair, nails, sweat and oil glands) make up the integumentary system. One of the main functions of the skin is protection.  It protects the body from external factors such as bacteria, chemicals, and temperature.  The skin contains secretions that can kill bacteria and the pigment melanin provides a chemical pigment defense against ultraviolet light that can damage skin cells.  Another important function of the skin is body temperature regulation. When the skin is exposed to a cold temperature, the blood vessels in the dermis constrict. This allows the blood which is warm, to bypass the skin.  The skin then becomes the temperature of the cold it is exposed to.  Body heat is conserved since the blood vessels are not diverting heat to the skin anymore.  Among its many functions the skin is an incredible organ always protecting the body from external agents.

    Erythrasma is a long-term skin infection caused by bacteria. It commonly occurs in skin folds.

  • Disease

    Erythroplasia of Queyrat

    The male reproductive system, viewed from a sagittal section.

    Erythroplasia of Queyrat is an early form of skin cancer found on the . The cancer is called squamous cell carcinoma in situ.

  • Test

    Erythropoietin test

    The erythropoietin test measures the amount of a hormone called erythropoietin (EPO) in blood. The hormone tells stem cells in the bone marrow to make more red blood cells. EPO is made by cells in the kidney. These cells release more EPO when blood oxygen levels are low. See also:

  • Special Topic

    Eschar

    Eschar is dead tissue that falls off (sheds) from healthy skin. It is caused by a or . An escharotic is a substance (such as acids, alkalies, carbon dioxide, or metallic salts) that causes the tissue to die and fall off.

  • Disease

    Esophageal atresia

    Esophageal atresia is a disorder of the digestive system in which the esophagus does not develop properly. The esophagus is the tube that normally carries food from the mouth to the stomach.

  • Disease

    Esophageal cancer

    The esophagus, stomach, large and small intestine, aided by the liver, gallbladder and pancreas convert the nutritive components of food into energy and break down the non-nutritive components into waste to be excreted.

    Esophageal cancer is a cancerous (malignant) tumor of the esophagus. This is the tube that moves food from the mouth to the stomach.

  • Test

    Esophageal culture

    A sample biopsy of esophageal tissue is obtained by placing a tube through the mouth into the esophagus where small instruments grab a portion of esophageal tissue for examination.  The test is performed when infection or other diseases of the esophagus are suspected, or an ongoing infection does not respond to treatment.

    Esophageal culture is a laboratory test that checks for infection-causing germs in a sample of tissue from the esophagus.

  • Test

    Esophageal manometry

    An esophageal manometry test measures the motility and function of the esophagus and esophageal sphincter. A tube is usually inserted through the nose and passed into the esophagus. The pressure of the sphincter muscle is recorded and also the contraction waves of swallowing are recorded. The manometry test is a tool used to help evaluate swallowing disorders.

    Esophageal manometry is a test to measure the pressure inside the lower part of the esophagus.

  • Disease

    Esophageal perforation

    The esophagus, stomach, large and small intestine, aided by the liver, gallbladder and pancreas convert the nutritive components of food into energy and break down the non-nutritive components into waste to be excreted.

    An esophageal perforation is a hole in the esophagus. The esophagus is the tube food passes through as it goes from the mouth to the stomach.

  • Test

    Esophageal pH monitoring

    Esophageal pH monitoring is a test that measures how often and how long stomach acid is entering the esophagus.  A small thin tube is introduced through the nose or mouth and into the stomach, which is then drawn back up into the esophagus.  The tube is attached to a monitor which records the level of acidity in the esophagus. The patient records symptoms and activity while the tube is left in place for the next 24 hours.  The information from the monitor is compared to the diary the patient provides.  This test is helpful in determining the amount of stomach acid entering the esophagus.

    Esophageal pH monitoring is a test that measures how often stomach acid enters the tube that leads from the mouth to the stomach (called the esophagus). The test also measures how long the acid stays there.

  • Disease

    Esophageal spasm

    The esophagus, stomach, large and small intestine, aided by the liver, gallbladder and pancreas convert the nutritive components of food into energy and break down the non-nutritive components into waste to be excreted.

    Esophageal spasms are abnormal contractions of the muscles in the esophagus (the tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach). These do not move food effectively to the stomach.

  • Disease

    Esophageal stricture - benign

    A solution containing a dye (barium), which is visible on X-rays, has been swallowed (upper GI series) and X-rays have been taken of the esophagus. There is a narrowing near the stomach (indicated by the arrow). This non-cancerous ring of tissue (Shatzki's ring) may cause swallowing problems (dysphagia) and can be treated with dilation of the stricture.

    Benign esophageal stricture is a narrowing of the esophagus (the tube from the mouth to the stomach) that causes swallowing difficulties. Benign means that it is not caused by c.

  • Surgery

    Esophagectomy - minimally invasive

    Minimally invasive esophagectomy is surgery to remove part or all of the esophagus This is the tube that moves food from your throat to your stomach. After it is removed, the esophagus is rebuilt from part of your stomach or part of your large intestine. Most of the time, esophagectomy is done to ...

  • Surgery

    Esophagectomy - open

    An esophagectomy is surgery to remove part or all of the esophagus. This is the tube that moves food from your throat to your stomach. After it is removed, the esophagus is rebuilt from part of your stomach or part of your large intestine. Most of the time, esophagectomy is done to treat .

  • Disease

    Esophagitis

    Food is swallowed and passes through the esophagus to the stomach, where the majority of digestion takes place.

    Esophagitis is a general term for any inflammation, irritation, or swelling of the esophagus, the tube that leads from the back of the mouth to the stomach. See also:

  • Disease

    Esophagitis - infectious

    Herpetic esophagitis is a herpes simplex infection causing inflammation and ulcers of the esophagus. Symptoms include difficulty swallowing and pain (dysphagia). Herpetic esophagitis can be effectively treated with antiviral medication if the person is not significantly immunodeficient.

    Esophagitis is a general term for any inflammation, irritation, or swelling of the esophagus — the tube that leads from the back of the mouth to the stomach. Infection in the esophagus may be due to: Fungi or yeast (most often Candida) Viruses, such as herpes or cytomegalovirus

  • Test

    ESR

    ESR stands for erythrocyte sedimentation rate. It is commonly called a “sed rate.” It is a test that indirectly measures how much inflammation is in the body.

  • Disease

    Essential tremor

    The central nervous system is comprised of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system includes all peripheral nerves.

    Essential tremor is a type of involuntary shaking movement in which no cause can be identified. Involuntary means you shake without trying to do so. See also:

  • Test

    Estradiol test

    An estradiol test measures the amount of a hormone called estradiol in the blood. Estradiol is the most important form of estrogen found in the body. Most of it is made in and released from the ovaries, adrenal cortex, and the placenta, which forms during pregnancy to feed a developing ...

  • Poison

    Estrogen overdose

    Estrogen is a female hormone. Estrogen occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally takes more than the normal or recommended amount of a product containing the hormone. This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an ...

  • Poison

    Ethanol poisoning

    Ethanol poisoning is caused by drinking too much alcohol. This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or 1-800-222-1222 for a local poison control center.

  • Disease

    Ethmoiditis

    The sinuses are hollow cavities within the facial bones.  Sinuses are not fully developed until after age twelve.  When people speak of sinus infections, they are most frequently referring to the maxillary and frontal sinuses.

    Ethmoiditis is an inflammation of the ethmoidal cells in the sinuses, the air-filled cavities behind the nose and between the eyes. See also:

  • Disease

    Ethylene glycol intoxication

    Local Poison Control Centers should be contacted immediately if a child consumes something poisonous.

    Ethylene glycol is a colorless, odorless, sweet-tasting chemical found in many household products, including antifreeze, deicing products, detergents, paints, and cosmetics. It is poisonous if swallowed. This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison ...

  • Test

    Ethylene glycol test

    Blood is drawn from a vein (venipuncture), usually from the inside of the elbow or the back of the hand. A needle is inserted into the vein, and the blood is collected in an air-tight vial or a syringe. Preparation may vary depending on the specific test.

    Ethylene glycol is a type of alcohol found in many household products. It does not have color or odor. It tastes sweet. . People sometimes drink ethylene glycol by mistake or on purpose as a substitute for alcohol. A test can be done to check for ethylene glycol in the blood.

  • Special Topic

    Etiology

    Etiology describes the cause or causes of a disease.

  • Poison

    Eucalyptus oil overdose

    Eucalyptus oil overdose occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally swallows large amounts of a product containing this ingredient. This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local ...

  • Poison

    Eugenol oil overdose

    Eugenol oil (clove oil) occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally swallows a large amount of a product containing this ingredient. This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local ...

  • Test

    Euglobulin lysis time

    Euglobulin lysis time (ELT) is a blood test that looks at how fast clots break down in the blood.

  • Disease

    Eustachian tube patency

    The ear consists of external, middle, and inner structures. The eardrum and the three tiny bones conduct sound from the eardrum to the cochlea.

    Eustachian tube patency refers to how much the Eustachian tube is open. The Eustachian tube runs between the middle ear and the throat. It controls the pressure behind the eardrum and middle ear space, and helps keep the middle ear free of fluid. The Eustachian tube is normally open, or patent. ...

  • Disease

    Ewing’s sarcoma

    X-rays are a form of ionizing radiation that can penetrate the body to form an image on film. Structures that are dense (such as bone) will appear white, air will be black, and other structures will be shades of gray depending on density. X-rays can provide information about obstructions, tumors, and other diseases, especially when coupled with the use of barium and air contrast within the bowel.

    Ewing’s sarcoma is a malignant (cancerous) that affects children.

  • Symptoms

    Excessive or unwanted hair in women

    Typically, ovarian cysts are functional (not disease-related) and usually disappear on their own within 60 days. Oral contraceptives may be prescribed to help establish normal cycles.

    The normal amount of body hair for women varies. Most of the time, a woman only has fine hair, or peach fuzz, above the lips and on the chin, chest, abdomen, or back. If you have coarse, dark hairs in these areas, the condition is called hirsutism. Such hair growth is more typical of men.

  • Surgery

    Exchange transfusion

    Exchange transfusion is a potentially life-saving procedure that is done to counteract the effects of serious jaundice or changes in the blood due to diseases such as sickle cell anemia. The procedure involves slowly removing the patient’s blood and replacing it with fresh donor blood or ...

  • Self-Care Instructions

    Exercise and activity - children

    Children should have many chances to play, run, bike, and play sports during the day. Experts recommend they get 60 minutes of moderate activity every day. Moderate activity means you breathe and your heart beats faster than normal. Some examples are: Walking fast Playing chase or tag Playing ...

  • Self-Care Instructions

    Exercise and activity for weight loss

  • Special Topic

    Exercise and age

    Physical activity contributes to health by reducing the heart rate, decreasing the risk for cardiovascular disease, and reducing the amount of bone loss that is associated with age and osteoporosis. Physical activity also helps the body use calories more efficiently, thereby helping in weight loss and maintenance. It can also increase basal metabolic rate, reduces appetite, and helps in the reduction of body fat.

  • Special Topic

    Exercise and children

    Physical activity contributes to health by reducing the heart rate, decreasing the risk for cardiovascular disease, and reducing the amount of bone loss that is associated with age and osteoporosis. Physical activity also helps the body use calories more efficiently, thereby helping in weight loss and maintenance. It can increase basal metabolic rate, reduces appetite, and helps in the reduction of body fat.

  • Special Topic

    Exercise and immunity

    Physical activity contributes to health by reducing the heart rate, decreasing the risk for cardiovascular disease, and reducing the amount of bone loss that is associated with age and osteoporosis. Physical activity also helps the body use calories more efficiently, thereby helping in weight loss and maintenance. It can also increase basal metabolic rate, reduces appetite, and helps in the reduction of body fat.

    Battling another cough or cold? Feeling tired all the time? Taking a daily walk or following a simple exercise routine a few times a week may help you feel better.Exercise not only helps your immune system fight off simple bacterial and viral infections, it decreases your chances of developing heart ...

  • Test

    Exercise stress test

    An exercise stress test is a screening tool used to test the effect of exercise on your heart.

  • Self-Care Instructions

    Exercise, lifestyle, and your bones

    Osteoporosis – exercise; Low bone density – exercise

  • Self-Care Instructions

    Exercise-induced asthma

    Exercise-induced asthma is distinct from allergic asthma in that it does not produce long-term increase in airway activity. People who only experience asthma when they exercise may be able to control their symptoms with preventive measures such as warm-up and cool-down exercises.

  • Self-Care Instructions

    Exercises to help prevent falls

  • Self-Care Instructions

    Exercising and asthma at school

  • Disease

    Exfoliative dermatitis

    The skin is the largest organ of the body.  The skin and its derivatives (hair, nails, sweat and oil glands) make up the integumentary system. One of the main functions of the skin is protection.  It protects the body from external factors such as bacteria, chemicals, and temperature.  The skin contains secretions that can kill bacteria and the pigment melanin provides a chemical pigment defense against ultraviolet light that can damage skin cells.  Another important function of the skin is body temperature regulation. When the skin is exposed to a cold temperature, the blood vessels in the dermis constrict. This allows the blood which is warm, to bypass the skin.  The skin then becomes the temperature of the cold it is exposed to.  Body heat is conserved since the blood vessels are not diverting heat to the skin anymore.  Among its many functions the skin is an incredible organ always protecting the body from external agents.

    Exfoliative dermatitis is widespread of the skin, often with itching (pruritus), skin redness (erythroderma), and hair loss.

  • Disease

    Expressive language disorder - developmental

    Developmental expressive language disorder is a condition in which a child has lower than normal ability in vocabulary, producing complex sentences, and remembering words. However, children with this disorder may have the normal language skills needed to understand verbal or written communication.

  • Special Topic

    External incontinence devices

    The urinary system is made up of the kidneys, ureters, urethra and bladder.

    External incontinence devices are products, called appliances, worn on the outside of the body to protect the skin from constant leakage of stool or urine. Certain medical conditions can cause people to lose control of their bowel or bladder.

  • Special Topic

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

    ECMO

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a treatment that uses a pump to circulate blood through an artificial lung back into the bloodstream of a very ill baby. This system provides heart-lung bypass support outside of the baby’s body. It may help support a very ill children who are awaiting ...

  • Disease

    Extradural hemorrhage

    An extradural hemorrhage is bleeding between the inside of the skull and the outer covering of the brain (called the “dura”).

  • Test

    Extraocular muscle function testing

    The eye is the organ of sight, a nearly spherical hollow globe filled with fluids (humors). The outer layer or tunic (sclera, or white, and cornea) is fibrous and protective. The middle tunic layer (choroid, ciliary body and the iris) is vascular. The innermost layer (the retina) is nervous or sensory. The fluids in the eye are divided by the lens into the vitreous humor (behind the lens) and the aqueous humor (in front of the lens). The lens itself is flexible and suspended by ligaments which allow it to change shape to focus light on the retina, which is composed of sensory neurons.

    Extraocular muscle function testing is an examination of the function of the eye muscles. A doctor observes the movement of the eyes in six specific directions.

  • Test

    Extremity angiography

    Extremity angiography is a test used to see the arteries in the hands, arms, feet, or legs. It is also called peripheral angiography. Angiography uses x-rays and a special dye to see inside the arteries. Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart.

  • Test

    Extremity x-ray

    X-rays are a form of ionizing radiation that can penetrate the body to form an image on film. Structures that are dense (such as bone) will appear white, air will be black, and other structures will be shades of gray depending on density. X-rays can provide information about obstructions, tumors, and other diseases, especially when coupled with the use of barium and air contrast within the bowel.

    An extremity is an image of the hands, wrist, feet, or all of these areas. The term “extremity” often refers to a human hand or foot. X-rays are a form of radiation that pass through the body to form an image on film. Structures that are dense (such as bone) will appear white. Air will ...

  • Special Topic

    Exudate

    Exudate is fluid, such as pus or clear fluid, that leaks out of blood vessels into nearby tissues. The fluid is made of cells, proteins, and solid materials. Exudate may ooze from cuts or from areas of infection or inflammation.

  • Special Topic

    Eye - foreign object in

    The eye is the organ of sight, a nearly spherical hollow globe filled with fluids (humors). The outer layer or tunic (sclera, or white, and cornea) is fibrous and protective. The middle tunic layer (choroid, ciliary body and the iris) is vascular. The innermost layer (the retina) is nervous or sensory. The fluids in the eye are divided by the lens into the vitreous humor (behind the lens) and the aqueous humor (in front of the lens). The lens itself is flexible and suspended by ligaments which allow it to change shape to focus light on the retina, which is composed of sensory neurons.

  • Test

    Eye and orbit ultrasound

    An echoencephalogram is a diagnostic procedure which uses ultrasound to test for abnormalities in the eye.  The ultrasound helps evaluate the farthest part of the eyeball when there are cataracts. The test may help diagnose retinal detachment or other disorders and evaluate orbital lesions and intraocular lesions.

    An eye and orbit is a test to look at the eye area, and to measure the size and structures of the eye.

  • Symptoms

    Eye burning - itching and discharge

    The cornea allows light to enter the eye.  As light passes through the eye the iris changes shape by expanding and letting more light through or constricting and letting less light through to change pupil size.  The lens then changes shape to allow the accurate focusing of light on the retina.  Light excites photoreceptors that eventually, through a chemical process, transmit nerve signals through the optic nerve to the brain.  The brain processes these nerve impulses into sight.

    Eye burning with discharge is burning, itching, or drainage from the eye of any substance other than tears.

  • Injury

    Eye emergencies

    The eye is the organ of sight, a nearly spherical hollow globe filled with fluids (humors). The outer layer or tunic (sclera, or white, and cornea) is fibrous and protective. The middle tunic layer (choroid, ciliary body and the iris) is vascular. The innermost layer (the retina) is nervous or sensory. The fluids in the eye are divided by the lens into the vitreous humor (behind the lens) and the aqueous humor (in front of the lens). The lens itself is flexible and suspended by ligaments which allow it to change shape to focus light on the retina, which is composed of sensory neurons.

    Eye emergencies include cuts, scratches, objects in the eye, , chemical exposure, and blunt injuries to the eye or eyelid. Since the eye is easily damaged, any of these conditions can lead to vision loss if left untreated.

  • Special Topic

    Eye floaters

    The eye is the organ of sight, a nearly spherical hollow globe filled with fluids (humors). The outer layer or tunic (sclera, or white, and cornea) is fibrous and protective. The middle tunic layer (choroid, ciliary body and the iris) is vascular. The innermost layer (the retina) is nervous or sensory. The fluids in the eye are divided by the lens into the vitreous humor (behind the lens) and the aqueous humor (in front of the lens). The lens itself is flexible and suspended by ligaments which allow it to change shape to focus light on the retina, which is composed of sensory neurons.

  • Surgery

    Eye muscle repair

    People are very sensitive to other individuals' eye positions. By looking at another person's eye position, one can very effectively gauge where they are looking. People are also sensitive to eyes that are not looking in the same direction, which is referred to as crossed eyes (strabismus). Other more specific medical terms refer to eyes turned either outward or inward, or that are abnormally rotated. Any appearance of crossed eyes in young children should be immediately evaluated, as should recent onset of crossed eyes in an adult.

    Eye muscle repair is surgery to correct eye muscle problems that cause crossed (misaligned) eyes. The medical term for crossed eyes is .

  • Symptoms

    Eye pain

    Pain in the eye may be described as a burning, throbbing, aching, or stabbing sensation in or around the eye. It may also feel like you have something stuck in your eye. This article discusses eye pain not caused by injury.

  • Symptoms

    Eye redness

    The white portion of the eye (sclera) can appear red when the vessels on the surface become enlarged. This may result from mechanical irritation, environmental irritants (such as extremely dry air, excess sun exposure), allergic reactions, infection, and other medical conditions.

A bright red, uniformly dense bloody area on the sclera results from a small amount of bleeding (hemorrhage) into the conjunctiva. It is a fairly common occurrence and is usually caused by straining or coughing. It generally clears up on its own after a few days.

    Eye redness is due to swollen or dilated blood vessels, which cause the surface of the eye to look red, or bloodshot.

  • Disease

    Eyelid bump

    A stye is a relatively common infection.  Styes are often caused by staphylococcus and occur in the glands that open onto the lid margin.  They are red, swollen, and painful.

    Most bumps on the eyelid are styes. A stye is an inflamed oil gland on the edge of your eyelid, where the lash meets the lid. It appears as a red, swollen bump that looks like a pimple. It is often tender to the touch.

  • Symptoms

    Eyelid drooping

    Drooping of the eyelid is called ptosis.  Ptosis may result from damage to the nerve that controls the muscles of the eyelid, problems with the muscle strength (as in myasthenia gravis), or from swelling of the lid.

    Eyelid drooping is excessive sagging of the upper eyelid. See also:

  • Disease

    Eyelid drooping

    Drooping of the eyelid is called ptosis.  Ptosis may result from damage to the nerve that controls the muscles of the eyelid, problems with the muscle strength (as in myasthenia gravis), or from swelling of the lid.

    Eyelid drooping is excess sagging of the upper eylid. The problem is also called ptosis.

  • Surgery

    Eyelid lift

    Eyelid lift surgery is done to repair sagging or drooping upper eyelids (). The surgery is called blepharoplasty. Sagging or drooping eyelids occur with increasing age. Some people are born with droopy eyelids or develop a disease that causes eyelid drooping.

  • Disease

    Eyelid twitch

    The eye is the organ of sight, a nearly spherical hollow globe filled with fluids (humors). The outer layer or tunic (sclera, or white, and cornea) is fibrous and protective. The middle tunic layer (choroid, ciliary body and the iris) is vascular. The innermost layer (the retina) is nervous or sensory. The fluids in the eye are divided by the lens into the vitreous humor (behind the lens) and the aqueous humor (in front of the lens). The lens itself is flexible and suspended by ligaments which allow it to change shape to focus light on the retina, which is composed of sensory neurons.

    An eyelid twitch is a general term for involuntary spasms of the eyelid muscles. Sometimes, the eyelid may repeatedly close (or nearly close) and reopen. This article discusses eyelid twitches in general.

  • Symptoms

    Eyes - bulging

    Graves disease is an autoimmune disorder that involves overactivity of the thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism). Hallmarks of the condition are bulging eyes (exophthalmos), heat intolerance, increased energy, difficulty sleeping, diarrhea, and anxiety.

    Bulging eyes is the abnormal protrusion (bulging out) of one or both eyeballs.