• Disease

    Hepatic encephalopathy

    The digestive system organs in the abdominal cavity include the liver, gallbladder, stomach, small intestine and large intestine.

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a worsening of brain function that occurs when the liver is no longer able to remove toxic substances in the blood.

  • Disease

    Hepatic hemangioma

    This angiogram (an X-ray taken after dye has been injected into the blood stream) shows a mass of blood vessels (hemangioma) in the liver.

    A hepatic hemangioma is a liver made of widened (dilated) blood vessels. It is not cancerous.

  • Disease

    Hepatic ischemia

    The proper hepatic artery supplies blood to the liver.

    Hepatic ischemia is a condition in which the liver does not get enough blood or oxygen, causing injury to liver cells.

  • Disease

    Hepatic vein obstruction (Budd-Chiari)

    The esophagus, stomach, large and small intestine, aided by the liver, gallbladder and pancreas convert the nutritive components of food into energy and break down the non-nutritive components into waste to be excreted.

    Hepatic vein obstruction is a blockage of the vein, which carries blood away from the liver.

  • Disease


    Hepatitis B is also known as serum hepatitis and is spread through blood and sexual contact.  It is seen with increased frequency among intravenous drug users who share needles and among the homosexual population.  This photograph is an electronmicroscopic image of hepatitis B virus particles.  (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.)

    Hepatitis is swelling and inflammation of the liver. The term is often used to refer to a viral infection of the liver.

  • Disease

    Hepatitis A

    A fly may act as a mechanical vector of diseases such as Hepatitis A, which means the fly carries the infective organism on its feet or mouth parts and contaminates food or water which a person then consumes. A biological vector actually develops an infective organism in its body and passes it along to its host, usually through its saliva. A fly can be a biological vector, as in the transmission of leishmaniasis by the sandfly.

    Hepatitis A is inflammation (irritation and swelling) of the liver from the hepatitis A virus.

  • Disease

    Hepatitis B

    The hepatitis B vaccine is recommended for healthcare workers, people who live with someone with hepatitis B, and others at higher risk. The hepatitis B virus can damage liver cells. Immunization is also recommended for all infants and unvaccinated adolescents.

    Hepatitis B is irritation and swelling (inflammation) of the liver due to infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Other types of viral hepatitis include:

  • Disease

    Hepatitis C

    Hepatitis C is a virus-caused liver inflammation which may cause jaundice, fever and cirrhosis. Persons who are most at risk for contracting and spreading hepatitis C are those who share needles for injecting drugs and health care workers or emergency workers who may be exposed to contaminated blood.

    Hepatitis C is a viral disease that leads to swelling (inflammation) of the liver. Other types of viral hepatitis include:

  • Disease

    Hepatocerebral degeneration

    The liver serves a wide variety of body functions, including detoxifying blood and producing bile that aids in digestion.

    Hepatocerebral degeneration is a brain disorder that occurs in people with liver damage.

  • Disease

    Hepatorenal syndrome

    The urinary system is made up of the kidneys, ureters, urethra and bladder.

    Hepatorenal syndrome is a condition in which there is progressive kidney failure in a person with of the liver. It is a serious and often life-threatening complication of cirrhosis.

  • Disease

    Hiatal hernia

    This x-ray shows the upper portion of the stomach protruding through the diaphragm (hiatal hernia).

    Hiatal hernia is a condition in which part of the stomach sticks upward into the chest, through an opening in the diaphragm. The diaphragm is the sheet of muscle that separates the chest from the abdomen. It is used in breathing.