Articles

  • Disease

    Parainfluenza

    Parainfluenza refers to a group of viruses that lead to upper and lower respiratory infections.

  • Disease

    Parapneumonic pleural effusion

    Air is breathed in through the nasal passageways, travels through the trachea and bronchi to the lungs.

    Parapneumonic pleural effusion is a buildup of fluid between layers of the tissue lining the lung and the chest cavity, which develops in the setting of .

  • Symptoms

    Pectus excavatum

    Pectus excavatum is a condition in which the "breast bone" (sternum) appears sunken and the chest concave.  It is sometimes called  "funnel chest".  The majority of these cases are not associated with any other condition (isolated findings).  However, some syndromes include pectus excavatum.

    Pectus excavatum describes an abnormal formation of the rib cage that gives the chest a caved-in or sunken appearance.

  • Disease

    Pleural effusion

    Air is breathed in through the nasal passageways, travels through the trachea and bronchi to the lungs.

    A pleural effusion is a buildup of fluid between the layers of tissue that line the lungs and chest cavity.

  • Test

    Pleural fluid Gram stain

    A pleural smear examines a sample of pleural fluid under the microscope to detect for abnormal organisms.  The test is performed when infection of the pleural space is suspected or when an abnormal collection of pleural fluid is noticed by chest X-ray.

    The pleural fluid Gram stain is a test to diagnose bacterial infections in the lungs.

  • Test

    Pleural fluid smear

    A pleural smear examines a sample of pleural fluid under the microscope to detect for abnormal organisms.  The test is performed when infection of the pleural space is suspected or when an abnormal collection of pleural fluid is noticed by chest X-ray.

    Pleural fluid smear is a laboratory procedure to check for bacteria, fungi, or abnormal cells in the fluid that may be found in the space around the lungs (called a ).

  • Disease

    Pneumomediastinum

    Air is breathed in through the nasal passageways, travels through the trachea and bronchi to the lungs.

    Pneumomediastinum is air in the mediastinum. The mediastinum is the space in the middle of the chest, between the lungs.

  • Disease

    Pneumonia - adults (community acquired)

    Air is breathed in through the nasal passageways, travels through the trachea and bronchi to the lungs.

    Pneumonia is a breathing (respiratory) condition in which there is an infection of the lung. This article covers community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). This type of pneumonia is found in persons who have not recently been in the hospital or another health care facility such as a nursing home or rehab ...

  • Test

    Polysomnography

    During a sleep study the sleep cycles and stages of sleep are monitored. Electrodes are placed to monitor continuous recordings of brain waves, electrical activity of muscles, eye movement, respiratory rate, blood pressure, blood oxygen saturation, and heart rhythm. Direct observation of the person during sleep may also be used. The test is performed for people who suffer from insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, obstructive sleep apnea, breathing difficulties during sleep, or behavior disturbances during sleep.

    Polysomnography is a sleep study. A sleep study monitors you as you sleep, or try to sleep. There are two states of sleep: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is when you dream. Your muscles (except your eyes and breathing muscles) do not move during this stage of sleep. Non-rapid eye movement (NREM) ...

  • Disease

    Primary alveolar hypoventilation

    Air is breathed in through the nasal passageways, travels through the trachea and bronchi to the lungs.

    Primary alveolar hypoventilation is a rare disorder of unknown cause in which a person does not take enough breaths per minute. The lungs and airways are normal.

  • Test

    Prolactin

    Prolactin is a hormone released by the pituitary gland. The prolactin test measures the amount of prolactin in the blood.

  • Disease

    Psittacosis

    Air is breathed in through the nasal passageways, travels through the trachea and bronchi to the lungs.

    Psittacosis is an infection caused by Chlamydophila psittaci, a type of bacteria found in the droppings of birds. Birds spread the infection to humans.

  • Disease

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

    Air is breathed in through the nasal passageways, travels through the trachea and bronchi to the lungs.

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is a rare disease in which a type of protein builds up in the air sacs (alveoli) of the lungs, making breathing difficult.

  • Disease

    Pulmonary arteriovenous fistula

    Pulmonary arteriovenous fistula is an abnormal connection between an artery and vein in the lungs. As a result, blood passes through the lungs without receiving enough oxygen.

  • Test

    Pulmonary function tests

    Spirometry is a painless study of air volume and flow rate within the lungs. Spirometry is frequently used to evaluate lung function in people with obstructive or restrictive lung diseases such as asthma or cystic fibrosis.

    Pulmonary function tests are a group of tests that measure how well the lungs take in and release air and how well they move gases such as oxygen from the atmosphere into the body’s circulation.

  • Disease

    Pulmonary Hypertension

    Air is breathed in through the nasal passageways, travels through the trachea and bronchi to the lungs.

    Pulmonary hypertension is abnormally high blood pressure in the arteries of the lungs. It makes the right side of the heart work harder than normal.

  • Disease

    Pulmonary nocardiosis

    Air is breathed in through the nasal passageways, travels through the trachea and bronchi to the lungs.

    Pulmonary nocardiosis is an infection of the lung with the bacteria, Nocardia asteroides.

  • Test

    Pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan

    Radioactive albumin injection is part of a nuclear scan test that is performed to measure the supply of blood through the lungs.  After the injection, the lungs are scanned to detect the location of the radioactive particles as blood flows through the lungs.

    A pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan involves two tests to measure breathing (ventilation) and circulation (perfusion) in all areas of the lungs.