Articles

  • Disease

    Sarcoidosis

    Sarcoid is primarily a lung (pulmonary) disease. In the early stages, a chest film may show enlargement of lymph nodes in the center of the chest near the heart (mediastinum).

    Sarcoidosis is a disease in which inflammation occurs in the lymph nodes, lungs, liver, eyes, skin, or other tissues.

  • Disease

    Silicosis

    This chest x-ray shows coal worker's lungs. There are diffuse, small, light areas on both sides (1 to 3 mm) in all parts of the lungs. Diseases that may result in an x-ray like this include: simple coal workers pneumoconiosis (CWP) - stage I, simple silicosis, miliary tuberculosis, histiocytosis X (eosinophilic granuloma), and other diffuse infiltrate pulmonary diseases.

    Silicosis is a disease caused by breathing in (inhaling) silica dust.

  • Disease

    Simple pulmonary eosinophilia

    Air is breathed in through the nasal passageways, travels through the trachea and bronchi to the lungs.

    Simple pulmonary eosinophilia is inflammation of the lungs from an increase in eosinophils, a type of white blood cell.

  • Symptoms

    Skin discoloration - bluish

    Lack of oxygen in the blood causes a bluish discoloration in the skin or mucous membranes called cyanosis. Most cyanosis is seen as a result of congenital heart disease, pulmonary disease, or as a terminal event as in cardiopulmonary arrest.

    Cyanosis is a bluish color to the skin or mucus membranes that is usually due to a lack of oxygen in the blood.

  • Disease

    Sleep disorders - overview

    Symptoms of sleep-wake syndrome include irregular periods of sleep and wakefulness which disrupt the normal daily sleep-wake cycle. It may be caused by brain dysfunction or not following a normal sleep schedule, ultimately leading to a pattern of insomnia and frequent daytime napping.

    Sleep disorders are problems with sleeping, including trouble falling or staying asleep, falling asleep at the wrong times, too much sleep, or abnormal behaviors during sleep.

  • Disease

    Sleepwalking

    Sleepwalking is a disorder that occurs when people walk or do other activity while they are still asleep.

  • Symptoms

    Snoring - adults

    Structures of the throat include the esophagus, trachea, epiglottis and tonsils.

    Snoring is a loud, hoarse, or harsh breathing sound that occurs during sleep.

  • Test

    Sputum stain for mycobacteria

    A sputum sample is obtained by coughing deeply and expelling the material that comes from the lungs into a sterile cup.   The sample is taken to a labarotory and placed in a medium under conditions that allow the organisms to grow.   A positive culture may identify disease-producing organisms that may help diagnose bronchitis, tuberculosis, a lung abscess, or pneumonia.

    Sputum stain for mycobacteria is a test to check for a type of bacteria that cause tuberculosis and other infections.

  • Test

    Sweat electrolytes test

    The sweat electrolyte test is a test that measures the level of chloride in sweat. In children, increased sodium and chloride concentrations in sweat can indicate cystic fibrosis, an inherited disease that affects the respiratory and digestive system.

    Sweat electrolytes is a test that measures the level of chloride in sweat. Sweat chloride test is the standard test used to diagnose cystic fiborsis.