Articles

  • Symptoms

    Painful menstrual periods

    External structures of the female reproductive anatomy include the labium minora and majora, the vagina and the clitoris. Internal structures include the uterus, ovaries and cervix.

    Painful menstrual periods are periods in which a woman has crampy lower abdominal pain, sharp or aching pain that comes and goes, or possibly back pain. Although some pain during your period is normal, excessive pain is not. The medical term for painful menstrual periods is dysmenorrhea.

  • Test

    Pap smear

    External structures of the female reproductive anatomy include the labium minora and majora, the vagina and the clitoris. Internal structures include the uterus, ovaries and cervix.

    The Pap smear is a screening test for cervical cancer. Cells scraped from the opening of the cervix are examined under a microscope. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus (womb) that opens at the top of the vagina.

  • Disease

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)

    External structures of the female reproductive anatomy include the labium minora and majora, the vagina and the clitoris. Internal structures include the uterus, ovaries and cervix.

    Pelvic inflammatory disease is a general term for infection of the uterus lining, fallopian tubes, or ovaries. See also:

  • Surgery

    Pelvic laparoscopy

    Pelvic adhesions are bands of scarlike tissue that form between two surfaces inside the body. Inflammation from infection, surgery, or trauma can cause tissues to bond to other tissues or organs.

    Pelvic laparoscopy is surgery to examine pelvic organs using a viewing tool called a laparoscope. The surgery is also used to treat certain diseases of the pelvic organs.

  • Disease

    Polycystic ovary syndrome

    External structures of the female reproductive anatomy include the labium minora and majora, the vagina and the clitoris. Internal structures include the uterus, ovaries and cervix.

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a condition in which a woman has an imbalance of a female sex hormones. This may lead to menstrual cycle changes, , trouble getting pregnant, and other health changes.

  • Special Topic

    Pregnancy - identifying fertile days

    External structures of the female reproductive anatomy include the labium minora and majora, the vagina and the clitoris. Internal structures include the uterus, ovaries and cervix.

    Fertile days are the days a woman is most likely to get pregnant. See also:

  • Disease

    Premenstrual dysphoric disorder

    A form of depression exclusive to women, premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a syndrome of depressive symptoms brought about by monthly hormonal fluctuation.

    Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a condition in which a woman has severe depression symptoms, irritability, and tension before menstruation. The symptoms of PMDD are more severe than those seen with . PMS refers to a wide range of physical or emotional symptoms that typically occur about ...

  • Disease

    Premenstrual syndrome

    Exercising to sweat out excess fluids and increasing your intake of high-fiber foods will help relieve premenstrual bloating.

    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) refers to a wide range of symptoms that: Start during the second half of the menstrual cycle (14 days or more after the first day of your last menstrual period) Go away 1 – 2 days after the menstrual period starts