• Surgery


    The uterus is exposed through the abdominal wall, and an incision is made in the uterine covering. The muscles of the uterus are separated, producinga hole for the delivery of the infant. The infant is delivered through the opening in the uterine wall, after which, the uterus is stitched closed.

    A C-section is the delivery of a baby through a surgical opening in the mother’s lower belly area. It is also called a cesarean section.

  • Disease

    Caput succedaneum

    Swelling and bruising usually occur on the top of the scalp where the head first enters the cervix during birth. This area is called a caput succedaneum and feels like a soft, spongy mass. This infant has a large caput on the right side of the scalp.

    Caput succedaneum is of the scalp in a newborn. It is most often brought on by pressure from the uterus or vaginal wall during a head-first (vertex) delivery.

  • Special Topic

    Central venous line - infants

    Central venous catheter

    A cental venous line (CVL) is a long, soft plastic tube, called a catheter, which is placed into a large vein in the chest. WHY IS A CVL USED? The main reason for a CVL is to deliver nutrients to a baby for a long period of time. It is most often used when attempts to place a percutaneous inserted ...

  • Special Topic

    Certified nurse-midwife

  • Special Topic

    Changes in the newborn at birth

    Changes in the newborn at birth refer to the changes an infant’s body undergoes to adapt to life outside the womb.

  • Disease

    Child neglect and psychological abuse

    Child neglect (also called psychological abuse) is a form of child abuse that occurs when someone intentionally does not provide a child with food, water, shelter, clothing, medical care, or other necessities. Other forms of child neglect include: Allowing the child to witness violence or severe ...

  • Poison


    Chlorophyll is the chemical that makes plants green. Chlorophyll poisoning occurs when someone swallows a large amount of this substance. This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local ...

  • Test

    Chorionic villus sampling

    The chorion is the portion of fetal membrane that eventually forms the fetal side of the placenta. The chorion contains chorionic villi, which are small finger-like projections. These villi are snipped or suctioned off for study in the procedure. Since the chorionic villi are of fetal origin, examining samples of them can provide the genetic makeup of the fetus. This test is performed to identify congenital defects. Experts use the sample to study the DNA, chromosomes, and enzymes of the fetus. The test can be done before amniocentesis, about 10 to 12 weeks after a missed period.

    Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) is a test done on some pregnant women. The test is done to screen your baby for genetic problems.

  • Surgery


    The foreskin is also known as the prepuce.  It is the loose fold of skin on the head of the penis.  The foreskin is the portion of tissue that is removed during circumcision.

    Circumcision is the surgical removal of the foreskin of the .

  • Disease

    Cleft lip and palate

    Infant hard and soft palates

    Cleft lip and palate are birth defects that affect the upper lip and the roof of the mouth.

  • Surgery

    Cleft lip and palate repair

    Cleft lip and cleft palate repair is surgery to fix birth defects of the upper lip and palate (roof of the mouth).

  • Disease

    Cleidocranial dysostosis

    Cleidocranial dysostosis is a disorder involving the abnormal development of bones in the skull and collar (clavicle) area. The condition is passed down through families (inherited).

  • Symptoms

    Clubbing of the fingers or toes

    Clubbing may result from chronic low blood-oxygen levels. This can be seen with cystic fibrosis, congenital cyanotic heart disease, and several other diseases. The tips of the fingers enlarge and the nails become extremely curved from front to back.

    Clubbing is changes in the areas under and around the toenails and fingernails that occur with some disorders. The nails also show changes.

  • Disease

    Coarctation of the aorta

    Coarctation of the aorta is a birth defect in which the aorta, the major artery from the heart, is narrowed. The narrowing results in high blood pressure before the point of coarctation and low blood pressure beyond the point of coarctation. Most commonly, coarctation is located so that there is high blood pressure in the upper body and arms and low blood pressure in the lower body and legs. Symptoms can include localized hypertension, cold feet or legs, decreased exercise performance, and heart failure.

    Aortic coarctation is a narrowing of part of the aorta (the major artery leading out of the heart). It is a type of birth defect. Coarctation means narrowing.

  • Disease

    Colic and crying

    Colic is crying in a baby that lasts for longer than 3 hours a day and is not caused by a medical problem. Colic occurs in almost all babies to varying degrees. Almost all babies go through a fussy period.

  • Disease

    Congenital cytomegalovirus

    Congenital cytomegalovirus is caused when an infected mother passes the virus to the fetus through the placenta. The infant is characteristically born with a rash, a large spleen or liver, jaundice, inflammation of the retina, and a small head.

    Congenital cytomegalovirus is a group of symptoms that occur when an infant is infected with the cytomegalovirus (CMV) before birth.

  • Surgery

    Congenital heart defect - corrective surgery

    The interior of the heart is composed of valves, chambers, and associated vessels.

    Congenital heart defect corrective surgery fixes or treats a heart defect that a child is born with. A baby born with one or more heart defects has . Surgery is needed if the defect is dangerous to the child’s health or well-being.

  • Disease

    Congenital heart disease

    The interior of the heart is composed of valves, chambers, and associated vessels.

    Congenital heart disease is a problem with the heart’s structure and function that is present at birth.

  • Disease

    Congenital rubella

    Rubella is often called three-day measles.  Because of the very effective vaccine, rubella is seldom seen today.  The rubella vaccine is given in combination with measles (rubeola) and mumps.  (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.)

    Congenital rubella is a condition that occurs in an infant whose mother is infected with the virus that causes German measles.

  • Disease

    Congenital syphilis

    Congenital syphilis is a severe, disabling, and often life-threatening infection seen in infants. A pregnant mother who has syphilis can spread the disease through the placenta to the unborn infant.

  • Disease

    Congenital toxoplasmosis

    Human infection with the toxoplasma gondii protozoan results from ingesting contaminated raw meat or soil, or careless handling of the contents of an infected cat's litter box. An infected pregnant woman can transmit the infection to her fetus (congenital toxoplasmosis).

    Congenital toxoplasmosis is a group of symptoms that occur when an unborn baby (fetus) is infected with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii.

  • Test

    Cord blood testing

    Cord blood refers to a sample of blood collected from the umbilical cord when a baby is born. The umbilical cord is the cord connecting the baby to the mother’s womb. This article focuses on cord blood testing done to evaluate a newborn’s health.

  • Nutrition

    Cow's milk - infants

  • Special Topic

    Cow's milk and children

    Cow's milk is not recommended for infants under less than one year old because the milk contains too much salt and protein.  For infants who are not breastfed, infant formula is given in its place. The carbohydrate, fat, protein, vitamin, and mineral content is formulated to be as close to human breast milk as possible.

  • Special Topic

    Cranial sutures

    The "sutures" or anatomical lines where the bony plates of the skull join together can be easily felt in the newborn infant. The diamond shaped space on the top of the skull and the smaller space further to the back are often referred to as the "soft spot" in young infants.

    Cranial sutures are fibrous bands of tissue that connect the bones of the skull.

  • Symptoms

    Crying - excessive (0-6 months)

    Infants instinctively cry to communicate hunger, thirst, discomfort, tiredness, or loneliness.  However, excessive crying may suggest a disorder that requires treatment.

  • Special Topic

    Crying in infancy

    Crying in infancy is described as a loud, high-pitched sound made by infants in response to certain situations. Infants have a cry reflex that is a normal response to some stimuli, such as pain or hunger. Older children and adults cry for emotional reasons such as pain, fear, sadness, or ...