Articles

  • Symptoms

    Palpebral slant - eye

    The direction of the slant of a line drawn from the outer corner of the eye to the inner corner is known as the palpebral slant. The most commonly recognized syndrome associated with an abnormal palpebral slant is Down's syndrome.

    The palpebral slant is the direction of the slant of a line drawn from the outer corner of the eye to the inner corner.

  • Disease

    Patent ductus arteriosus

    The interior of the heart is composed of valves, chambers, and associated vessels.

    Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a condition in which the ductus arteriosus does not close. The word “patent” means open. The ductus arteriosus is a blood vessel that allows blood to go around the baby’s lungs before birth. Soon after the infant is born and the lungs fill with ...

  • Disease

    Patent foramen ovale

    The interior of the heart is composed of valves, chambers, and associated vessels.

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a hole between the left and right atria (upper chambers) of the heart. This hole exists in everyone before birth, but usually closes shortly after being born. PFO is what the hole is called when it fails to close naturally after a baby is born.

  • Surgery

    Pediatric heart surgery

    Heart surgery in children is done to repair heart defects a child is born with (congenital heart defects) and heart diseases a child gets after birth that need surgery. The surgery is needed for the child’s well being.

  • Special Topic

    Percutaneously inserted central catheter - infants

    A percutaneously inserted central catheter (PICC) is a long, very thin, soft plastic tube that is placed in a small blood vessel. This article discusses PICCs in babies. WHY IS A PICC USED? The primary reason for a PICC is to deliver fluids and medicine over a long period of time without having to ...

  • Special Topic

    Peripheral arterial line - infants

    A peripheral arterial line (PAL) is a small, short plastic catheter that is placed through the skin into an artery of the arm or leg. This article discusses the use of PALs in babies. WHY IS A PAL USED? The main reason to use a PAL is to continuously watch your baby’s blood pressure. It also allows ...

  • Special Topic

    Peripheral intravenous line - infants

    A peripheral intravenous line (PIV) is a small, short plastic tube, called a catheter. It is placed through the skin into a vein, usually in the hand, arm, or foot, but sometimes in a baby’s scalp. WHY IS A PIV USED? A PIV is used to give fluids or medicines to a baby. HOW IS A PIV ...

  • Disease

    Periventricular leukomalacia

    Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is a type of brain injury that affects infants. The condition involves the death of small areas of brain tissue around fluid-filled areas called ventricles. The damage creates “holes” in the brain. “Leuko” refers to the brain’s white ...

  • Symptoms

    Pinna abnormalities and low-set ears

    Low set ears (pinna), abnormal rotation, the absence of ears, and abnormal folds in the ear may be associated with various medical conditions.

    Pinna abnormalities and low-set ears refer to an abnormal shape or position of the outer ear (pinna or auricle).

  • Disease

    Placenta abruptio

    The uterus is exposed through the abdominal wall, and an incision is made in the uterine covering. The muscles of the uterus are separated, producinga hole for the delivery of the infant. The infant is delivered through the opening in the uterine wall, after which, the uterus is stitched closed.

    Placenta abruptio is the separation of the placenta (the organ that nourishes the fetus) from its attachment to the uterus wall before the baby is delivered.

  • Disease

    Placenta previa

    The uterus is exposed through the abdominal wall, and an incision is made in the uterine covering. The muscles of the uterus are separated, producinga hole for the delivery of the infant. The infant is delivered through the opening in the uterine wall, after which, the uterus is stitched closed.

    Placenta previa is a problem of pregnancy in which the placenta grows in the lowest part of the womb (uterus) and covers all or part of the opening to the . The placenta grows during pregnancy and feeds the developing baby. The cervix is the opening to the birth canal.

  • Disease

    Placental insufficiency

    The placenta provides the fetus with oxygen and nutrients and takes away waste such as carbon dioxide via the umbilical cord.

    The placenta is the link between you and your baby. When the placenta does not work as well as it should, your baby can get less oxygen and nutrients from you. As a result, your baby may: Not grow as well Show signs of fetal stress (this means the baby’s heart does not work normally) Have a ...

  • Disease

    Pneumothorax - infants

    Pneumothorax

    Pneumothorax is the collection of air or gas in the space inside the chest around the lungs, which leads to a lung collapse. This article discusses pneumothorax in infants. For information about pneumothorax in older children and adults, see:

  • Disease

    Preeclampsia

    Preeclampsia is the development of swelling, elevated blood pressure, sudden and rapid weight gain and protein in the urine during pregnancy. The exact cause is unknown, but it occurs in approximately 5% of the population.

    Preeclampsia is when a pregnant woman develops and after the 20th week (late 2nd or 3rd trimester) of pregnancy.

  • Special Topic

    Pregnancy - health risks

    The ultrasound has become a standard procedure used during pregnancy. It can demonstrate fetal growth and can detect increasing numbers of conditions in the fetus including meningomyelocele, congenital heart disease, kidney abnormalities, hydrocephalus, anencephaly, club feet, and other deformities. Ultrasound does not produce ionizing radiation and is considered a very safe procedure for both the mother and the fetus.

    If you are trying to get pregnant, you should try to follow healthy habits from the time you are trying to get pregnant all the way through your pregnancy. Do not smoke tobacco or use illegal drugs, stop drinking alcohol, and limit caffeine and coffee. Talk to your doctor about any medications you ...

  • Special Topic

    Pregnancy and the flu

    During pregnancy, it is harder for a woman’s immune system to fight infections. This makes a pregnant woman more likely to get the flu and other diseases. Pregnant women are more likely than other nonpregnant women their age to become very ill if they get the flu. If you are pregnant, you ...

  • Special Topic

    Pregnancy care

    Before modern medicine, many mothers and their babies did not survive pregnancy and childbirth. Today, good prenatal care can significantly improve the quality of the pregnancy and the outcome for the baby and mother.Good prenatal care includes:Good nutrition and health habits before and during ...

  • Test

    Pregnancy test

    The qualitative urine human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) test is a pregnancy test that can be performed at home by a woman to determine pregnancy.  To perform the test the woman places the test strip, which has a chemically sensitive substance, under her urine stream.  Within minutes the test reveals whether the woman is positive (pregnant), or negative (not pregnant).

    A pregnancy test measures a hormone in the body called human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). HCG is a hormone produced during pregnancy. It appears in the blood and urine of pregnant women as early as 10 days after conception.

  • Test

    Pregnancy ultrasound

    Ultrasound in pregnancy

    A pregnancy ultrasound is an imaging test that uses sound waves to see how a baby is developing in the womb. It is also used to check the female pelvic organs during pregnancy.

  • Disease

    Premature infant

    A premature infant is a baby born before 37 completed weeks of (more than 3 weeks before the “due date”).

  • Disease

    Pulmonary atresia

    The interior of the heart is composed of valves, chambers, and associated vessels.

    Pulmonary atresia is a form of heart disease that occurs from birth (congenital heart disease), in which the pulmonary valve does not form properly. The pulmonary valve is an opening on the right side of the heart that regulates blood flow from the right ventricle (right side pumping chamber) to the ...

  • Disease

    Pyloric stenosis

    A narrowing of the outlet from the stomach to the small intestine (called the pylorus) that occurs in infants.

    Pyloric stenosis is a narrowing of the pylorus, the opening from the stomach into the small intestine.