Also known as: Peritoneal tap, Paracentesis, Ascites - abdominal tap, Cirrhosis - abdominal tap or Malignant ascites - abdominal tap
- Diagnostic tap. A small amount of fluid is taken and sent to the laboratory for testing
- Large volume tap. Several liters may be removed to relieve abdominal pain and fluid buildup
- Have any allergies to medicines or numbing medicine
- Are taking any medicines (including herbal remedies)
- Have any bleeding problems
- Might be pregnant
An abdominal tap is used to remove fluid from the area between the belly wall and the spine. This space is called the abdominal cavity.
How the Test is Performed
This test may be done in a health care provider's office, treatment room, or hospital.
The puncture site will be cleaned and shaved, if necessary. You then receive a local numbing medicine. The tap needle is inserted 1 to 2 inches (2.5 to 5 cm) into the abdomen. Sometimes, a small cut is made to help insert the needle. The fluid is pulled out into a syringe.
The needle is removed. A dressing is placed on the puncture site. If a cut was made, one or two stitches may be used to close it.
Sometimes, ultrasound is used to guide the needle. An ultrasound uses sound waves to make the image and not x-rays. It does not hurt.
There are 2 kinds of abdominal taps:
How to Prepare for the Test
Let your provider know if you:
How the Test will Feel
You may feel a slight sting from the numbing medicine, or pressure as the needle is inserted.
If a large amount of fluid is taken out, you may feel dizzy or lightheaded. Tell the provider if you feel dizzy or lightheaded.
Why the Test is Performed
Normally, the abdominal cavity contains only a small amount of fluid. In certain conditions, large amounts of fluid can build up in this space.
An abdominal tap can help diagnose the cause of fluid buildup or the presence of an infection. It may also be done to remove a large amount of fluid to reduce belly pain.
Normally, there should be little or no fluid in the abdominal space.
What Abnormal Results Mean
An exam of abdominal fluid may show:
There is a slight chance that the needle could puncture the bowel, bladder, or a blood vessel in the abdomen. If a large quantity of fluid is removed, there is a slight risk of lowered blood pressure and kidney failure. There is also a slight chance of infection.
Garcia-Tiso G. Cirrhosis and its sequelae. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 153.
Runyon BA. Ascites and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger & Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 93.
- Review date:
- December 07, 2016
- Reviewed by:
- Subodh K. Lal, MD, gastroenterologist with Gastrointestinal Specialists of Georgia, Austell, GA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- 2008 A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.