Articles

  • Injury

    Allergic reactions

    Dermatographism is a condition where lightly scratching the skin raises wheals or welts. Histamine is released, which causes the small blood vessels (capillaries) to dilate, producing redness and localized swelling.

    Allergic reactions are sensitivities to substances called allergens that come into contact with the skin, nose, eyes, respiratory tract, and gastrointestinal...

  • Injury

    Bleeding

    Bleeding from most injuries can be stopped by applying direct pressure to the injury. This keeps from cutting off the blood supply to the affected limb.

    Bleeding is the loss of blood. Bleeding may be: Inside the body (internally) Outside the body (externally) Bleeding may occur: * Inside the body when...

  • Injury

    Broken or knocked out tooth

    The medical term for a knocked out tooth is “avulsed” tooth.

  • Injury

    Bruise

    A bone bruise results from compressive forces incurred during an injury. The damaged area occurs in the medullary portion of the bone and can be accompanied by  bleeding and swelling.Bruises are often caused by falls, sports injuries, car accidents, or blows from other people or objects. Bruises can last from days to months, with the bone bruise being the most severe and painful.

    A bruise is an area of skin discoloration. A bruise occurs when small blood vessels break and leak their contents into the soft tissue beneath the skin.

  • Injury

    Burns

    The depth of a burn determines its severity. First degree burns damage the outer layer of skin (epidermis) and cause pain, redness and swelling (erythema). Second degree burns damage the epidermis and the inner layer, the dermis, causing erythema and blistering. Damage from third degree burns extend into the hypodermis, causing destruction of the full thickness of skin with its nerve supply (numbness). Third degree burns leave scars and may cause loss of function and/or sensation.

    Burns commonly occur by direct or indirect contact with heat, electric current, radiation, or chemical agents. Burns can lead to cell death.

  • Injury

    Chemical burn or reaction

    The depth of a burn determines its severity. First degree burns damage the outer layer of skin (epidermis) and cause pain, redness and swelling (erythema). Second degree burns damage the epidermis and the inner layer, the dermis, causing erythema and blistering. Damage from third degree burns extend into the hypodermis, causing destruction of the full thickness of skin with its nerve supply (numbness). Third degree burns leave scars and may cause loss of function and/or sensation.

    Chemicals that touch skin can lead to a reaction on the skin, throughout the body, or both.

  • Injury

    Crush injury

    A crush injury occurs when force or pressure is put on a body part. This type of injury most often happens when part of the body is squeezed between 2 heavy...

  • Injury

    Cuts and puncture wounds

    The essentials of a good first aid kit include a variety of bandages, medications, and equipment to stabilize injuries until proper medical attention can be administered.

    A cut is a break or opening in the skin. It is also called a laceration. A cut may be deep, smooth, or jagged. It may be near the surface of the skin, or...

  • Injury

    Dislocation

    Radial dislocation may be caused by a sudden pull on a child's arm or hand. For first aid, immobilize the arm and take the child to the doctor's office or emergency room.

    A dislocation is a separation of 2 bones where they meet at a joint. Joints are areas where 2 bones come together. A dislocated joint is a joint where the...

  • Injury

    Drug use first aid

    Drug use is the misuse or overuse of any medicine or drug, including alcohol. This article discusses first aid for drug overdose and withdrawal.