• Nutrition

    Infant formulas

    Infant formulas are food products designed to provide for the nutritional needs of infants under 1 year old. They include powders, concentrated liquids, or...

  • Special Topic

    Infant of a substance-abusing mother

    Substance abuse during pregnancy

    Maternal substance abuse may consist of any combination of drug, chemical, alcohol, and/or tobacco use during the pregnancy. While in the womb, a fetus grows...

  • Disease

    Infant of diabetic mother

    An infant of a diabetic mother is a baby who is born to a mother with diabetes. The baby’s mother had high blood sugar (glucose) levels throughout her...

  • Symptoms

    Infant reflexes

    Infantile reflexes are tested and observed by medical professionals to evaluate neurological function and development. Absent or abnormal reflexes in an infant, persistence of a reflex past the age where the reflex is normally lost, or redevelopment of an infantile reflex in an older child or adult may suggest significant central nervous system, nerve trunk, or peripheral nerve problems.

    A reflex is a muscle reaction that happens automatically in response to stimulation. Certain sensations or movements produce specific muscle responses.

  • Disease

    Intrauterine growth restriction

    This is a normal fetal ultrasound performed at 19 weeks gestation.  Many health care providers like to have fetal measurements to verify the size of the fetus and to look for any abnormalities.  This ultrasound is of an abdominal measurement.  It shows a cross-section of the abdomen, and the measurements are indicated by the cross hairs and dotted lines.

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) refers to the poor growth of a baby while in the mother’s womb during pregnancy. Specifically, it means the developing...

  • Disease

    Intraventricular hemorrhage of the newborn

    Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) of the newborn is bleeding into the fluid-filled areas (ventricles) inside the brain. The condition occurs most often in...