• Nutrition

    Infant formulas - overview

    During the first 4 to 6 months of life, infants need only breast milk or formula to meet all their nutritional needs. Infant formulas include powders,...

  • Special Topic

    Infant of a substance using mother

    Substance abuse during pregnancy

    Maternal substance abuse may consist of any combination of drug, chemical, alcohol, and tobacco use during the pregnancy. While in the womb, a fetus grows...

  • Disease

    Infant of diabetic mother

    A fetus (baby) of a mother with diabetes may be exposed to high blood sugar (glucose) levels throughout the pregnancy.

  • Symptoms

    Infant reflexes

    Infantile reflexes are tested and observed by medical professionals to evaluate neurological function and development. Absent or abnormal reflexes in an infant, persistence of a reflex past the age where the reflex is normally lost, or redevelopment of an infantile reflex in an older child or adult may suggest significant central nervous system, nerve trunk, or peripheral nerve problems.

    A reflex is a muscle reaction that happens automatically in response to stimulation. Certain sensations or movements produce specific muscle responses.

  • Disease

    Intrauterine growth restriction

    This is a normal fetal ultrasound performed at 19 weeks gestation.  Many health care providers like to have fetal measurements to verify the size of the fetus and to look for any abnormalities.  This ultrasound is of an abdominal measurement.  It shows a cross-section of the abdomen, and the measurements are indicated by the cross hairs and dotted lines.

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) refers to the poor growth of a baby while in the mother’s womb during pregnancy.

  • Disease

    Intraventricular hemorrhage of the newborn

    Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) of the newborn is bleeding into the fluid-filled areas (ventricles) inside the brain. The condition occurs most often in...