Articles

  • Symptoms

    Painful menstrual periods

    External structures of the female reproductive anatomy include the labium minora and majora, the vagina and the clitoris. Internal structures include the uterus, ovaries and cervix.

    Painful menstrual periods are periods in which a woman has crampy lower abdominal pain, sharp or aching pain that comes and goes, or possibly back pain. Some...

  • Test

    Pap test

    External structures of the female reproductive anatomy include the labium minora and majora, the vagina and the clitoris. Internal structures include the uterus, ovaries and cervix.

    The Pap test checks for cervical cancer. Cells scraped from the opening of the cervix are examined under a microscope. The cervix is the lower part of the...

  • Disease

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)

    External structures of the female reproductive anatomy include the labium minora and majora, the vagina and the clitoris. Internal structures include the uterus, ovaries and cervix.

    Pelvic inflammatory disease is an infection of a woman’s womb (uterus), ovaries, or fallopian tubes.

  • Surgery

    Pelvic laparoscopy

    Pelvic adhesions are bands of scarlike tissue that form between two surfaces inside the body. Inflammation from infection, surgery, or trauma can cause tissues to bond to other tissues or organs.

    Pelvic laparoscopy is surgery to examine pelvic organs. It uses a viewing tool called a laparoscope. The surgery is also used to treat certain diseases of...

  • Disease

    Polycystic ovary syndrome

    External structures of the female reproductive anatomy include the labium minora and majora, the vagina and the clitoris. Internal structures include the uterus, ovaries and cervix.

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition in which a woman has an imbalance of female sex hormones. This may lead to changes in the menstrual cycle,...

  • Special Topic

    Pregnancy - identifying fertile days

    External structures of the female reproductive anatomy include the labium minora and majora, the vagina and the clitoris. Internal structures include the uterus, ovaries and cervix.

    Fertile days are the days a woman is most likely to get pregnant. Infertility is a related topic.

  • Symptoms

    Premenstrual breast changes

    The female breast is either of two mammary glands (organs of milk secretion) on the chest.

    Premenstrual swelling and tenderness of both breasts occurs during the second half of the menstrual cycle.

  • Disease

    Premenstrual dysphoric disorder

    A form of depression exclusive to women, premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a syndrome of depressive symptoms brought about by monthly hormonal fluctuation.

    Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a condition in which a woman has severe depression symptoms, irritability, and tension before menstruation. The...

  • Disease

    Premenstrual syndrome

    Exercising to sweat out excess fluids and increasing your intake of high-fiber foods will help relieve premenstrual bloating.

    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) refers to a wide range of symptoms that: Start during the second half of the menstrual cycle (14 or more days after the first...