Managing your weight with healthy eating

A Balanced Diet

For a balanced diet, you need the right types and amounts of foods and drinks. This keeps your body healthy.

Know how many calories your body needs every day. Know what size portions your body needs. A balanced diet also includes avoiding too much of some foods and making sure you get enough of others.

Stock up on healthy foods. Avoid foods like chips and candy. They are high in calories. They also don’t have much nutrition. Eat healthy snacks instead.

Choose different healthy foods from each food group. Eat foods from each group with every meal.

PROTEIN (MEATS AND BEANS)

Good sources of protein include turkey and chicken with the skin removed. Buffalo meat is also good.

Eat lean cuts of beef or pork. Trim away any visible fat.

Eat plenty of fish and shellfish.

Beans are also good sources of protein, including pinto beans, black beans, kidney beans, lentils, split peas, and garbanzo beans.

Nuts and seeds are part of a balanced diet. You can also eat tofu, tempeh, and other soy products.

Eggs are a good source of protein and low in saturated fat. But they are very high in cholesterol. Do not eat more than 4 eggs yolks per week. Or try eating dishes that only include egg whites.

DAIRY (MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS)

Always choose fat-free (skim) or low-fat (1%) dairy products, and try to consume 3 cups per day. Cheese is also a healthy choice, but only in moderation.

Other good dairy choices are milk, buttermilk, and low-fat ice cream. Yogurt is best when it is fat-free or low-fat.

Cream cheese, cream, and butter are not healthy dairy products.

GRAINS, CEREALS, AND FIBER

Grain products are made from wheat, rice, oats, cornmeal, barley, or another cereal grain. Foods made with grains include pasta, oatmeal, breads, breakfast cereals, tortillas, and grits.

There are two kinds of grains: whole grains or refined grains. Choose mostly whole-grain foods. They are much healthier for you because they have the entire grain kernel. These include whole-wheat flour, bulgur (cracked wheat), oatmeal, whole cornmeal, and brown rice. Buy foods that have the words "whole grain" or "whole wheat" on the package.

Refined grains are changed to make them last longer. They also have a finer texture. This process removes fiber, iron, and many B vitamins. Refined grains include white flour, white rice, or de-germed cornmeal. Eat fewer foods that often have refined grains, such as flour and pasta.

Products with added bran, such as oat bran or bran cereal, are a good source of fiber. Just remember, they may not be whole-grain products.

OILS AND FATS

Oils are fats that are liquid at room temperature. Most of these oils are high in monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fats. This is the best oil to use for cooking.

Many healthy oils come from plants, nuts, olives, or fish. Healthy choices are canola, corn, cottonseed, olive, safflower, soybean, and sunflower oils.

Any fats that are solid at room temperature contain saturated fats. Saturated fats are much less healthy for you and are often high in cholesterol. Fats found in animals and some fish are higher in saturated fats.

Saturated fats may be found in some foods. Some vegetable oils also have saturated fats. These are coconut, palm, and palm kernel oils.

You can reduce saturated fats in your diet by eating only a small amount of egg yolks, hard cheeses, whole milk, cream, ice cream, butter, and fatty meats.

Trans fats and hydrogenated fats are often found in fried foods. They are also in some donuts, cookies, and crackers. Many processed foods and margarines have them.

Avoid fried foods. Fried food absorbs the fats from cooking oils. This increases your fat intake. If you do fry, cook with polyunsaturated oils.

Boil, grill, poach, and bake fish, chicken, and lean meats.

Read food labels. Avoid foods that have saturated fats, hydrogenated fats, or trans fats.

FRUITS AND VEGETABLES

Fruits and vegetables are lower in calories. They are also packed with fiber, vitamins, and minerals. Eating many fruits and vegetables can help you control your weight. It may also reduce your risk of cancer and other diseases.

Fruits and vegetables are high in fiber and water. This helps fill you up. Replace high-calorie foods with fruits and vegetables. This can lower the calories and fat in your diet without leaving you feeling hungry.

Be careful not to eat too many fruits. They do have calories. But try to eat 2 cups (4 servings) of fruit and 2 1/2 cups of vegetables (5 servings) per day for an average 2,000-calorie per day diet. You can always add more low-calorie vegetables to your diet.

Divide your dinner plate. Fill half your plate with fruits and vegetables. Fill the other half with whole grains and meat.

Replace half of the cheese in your omelets with spinach, onions, tomatoes, or mushrooms. Replace 2 ounces of cheese and 2 ounces of meat in your sandwiches with lettuce, tomato, cucumbers, or onions.

Add chopped broccoli, tomatoes, squash, onions, or green peppers to your dishes instead of pasta or rice. Use frozen or canned vegetables if you don’t have fresh ones.

When you feel hungry during the day, eat some baby carrots or an apple. Choose fresh fruit for dessert. Avoid cookies, cakes, or pudding.

For more information visit "www.choosemyplate.gov":http://www.choosemyplate.gov/.

How many eggs are healthy to eat each week?The correct answer is up to four. Eggs are a good source of protein and low in saturated fat. But they are also high in cholesterol. If you want to eat more than four eggs a week, consider using the whites only.How many grams of fiber should your cereal have?The correct answer is four. When shopping for breakfast cereal, look for whole grain cereals with at least four grams of fiber per serving. For a nutritious breakfast, top your cereal with fat-free or low-fat milk and a few slices of banana or other fruit.Which is a healthy choice for breakfast on the go?The correct answer is whole grain bagel. If you don't have time for breakfast, reach for a whole grain bagel or toast. Resist the urge for baked goods like muffins, croissants, and biscuits. They're made from processed grains and are loaded with fat.How can you build a healthier sandwich?The correct answer is all of the above. Enjoy a healthy sandwich by starting with lean cuts of meat and skipping the extra fat or calories from mayonnaise. Instead, pile on your favorite veggies and serve it on whole grain bread.Pizza isn't a healthy meal option.The correct answer is false. Pizza is OK to eat every once in a while, but try to limit yourself to only one or two slices. Instead of fatty meat toppings, choose vegetables, chicken, lean ham, or shrimp. And enjoy a salad on the side—just be sure to go easy on the dressing.How many servings of fish should you eat each week?The correct answer is two. Eating fish twice a week may help reduce your risk for heart disease, high blood pressure, blood clots, and stroke. The healthiest are oily fish such as salmon, mackerel, trout, and albacore tuna.What can you add to soups and entrees to make them healthier?The correct answer is A and B. Beans and vegetables add fiber and vitamins to your meals. Next time you're cooking, just add a cup of your favorite canned beans or fresh or frozen vegetables to soups, stews, casseroles, and other entrees.Which of the following makes a healthy between-meal snack?The correct answer is any of the above. A healthy snack is a good way to quell your hunger in between meals. Rather than grabbing a bag of chips or reaching into the candy jar, consider one of the options above. Greek yogurt has more protein. Just watch for added sugar in yogurt. Fruits and vegetables are also healthy choices.What is the healthiest way to cook fish, meat, and poultry?The correct answer is all of the above. These cooking methods don't add extra oil or fat to your food. Make your meal even healthier by choosing lean cuts of meat and cutting away visible fat before cooking. And don't forget to remove the skin from chicken or turkey.Buffets are healthy because you can choose your own food.The correct answer is false. The truth is that most people overeat when faced with an all-you-can-eat buffet. If you do find yourself at a buffet, try to fill up on salad and vegetables. Stay away from any foods that are creamy, crispy, breaded, fried, or battered.How can you watch calories when eating out?The correct answer is all of the above. You can still make healthy choices when you eat out—it just takes a little work. Don't be afraid to ask for what you want. And before heading out, check out the menu online so you can make healthy choices ahead of time.
Review date:
December 11, 2012
Reviewed by:
David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine. Also reviewed by A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc., Editorial Team: David Zieve, MD, MHA, David R. Eltz, Stephanie Slon, and Nissi Wang.
Copyright Information A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare Commission (www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows rigorous standards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. is among the first to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A.M.'s editorial policy, editorial process and privacy policy. A.D.A.M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch).

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- 2008 A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.