Also known as: Impaired fasting glucose - prediabetes and Impaired glucose tolerance - prediabetes
- A previous diabetes test showing diabetes risk
- Family history of diabetes
- Inactive lifestyle and lack of regular exercise
- African American, Hispanic/Latin American, American Indian and Alaska Native, Asian American, or Pacific Islander ethnicity
- High blood pressure (140/90 mm Hg or higher)
- Low HDL (good) cholesterol and high triglycerides
- History of cardiovascular disease
- History of diabetes during pregnancy (gestational diabetes)
- History of delivering a baby weighing more than 9 pounds (4 kilograms)
- Polycystic ovary syndrome
Prediabetes occurs when the level of sugar (glucose) in your blood is too high, but not high enough to be called diabetes.
If you have prediabetes, you are at a much higher risk for developing type 2 diabetes within 10 years. It also greatly increases your risk for heart disease.
Losing extra weight and getting regular exercise CAN stop prediabetes from becoming full-blown diabetes.
Your body gets energy from the glucose in your blood. A hormone called insulin helps the cells in your body use glucose. If you have prediabetes, this process does not work as well. Glucose builds up in your bloodstream. If the levels get high enough, you can develop type 2 diabetes.
Having diabetes increases the risk for certain health problems. This is because high glucose levels in the blood can damage the blood vessels and nerves. This can lead to heart disease and stroke. If you have prediabetes, damage may already be occurring in your blood vessels.
Having prediabetes is a wake-up call to take action to improve your health.
How to Help Prevent Diabetes
Your health care provider will talk with you about your condition and your risks from prediabetes. To help you prevent diabetes, your provider will likely suggest certain lifestyle changes:
Eat healthy foods: This includes whole grains, lean proteins, low-fat dairy, and plenty of fruits and vegetables. Watch portion sizes, and avoid sweets and fried foods.
Lose weight: Just a small weight loss can make a big difference in your health. For example, your provider may suggest that you lose about 7% of your body weight. So, if you weigh 200 pounds (90 kilograms), your goal would be to lose about 14 pounds (6 kilograms). Your provider may suggest a diet or you can join a program to help you lose weight.
Get more exercise: Aim to get at least 30 to 60 minutes of moderate exercise at least 5 days a week. This can include brisk walking, riding your bike, or swimming. You can also break up exercise into smaller sessions throughout the day.
Take medicines as directed: Depending on your other risk factors, your provider may prescribe medicines to lower cholesterol or blood pressure or to help prevent diabetes.
You cannot tell that you have prediabetes because it has no symptoms. The only way to know is through a blood test. Your health care provider will test your blood sugar if you are at risk for diabetes. The risk factors for prediabetes are the same as those for type 2 diabetes.
You should get tested for prediabetes if you are age 45 or older. If you are younger than 45, you should get tested if you are overweight or obese and have one or more of these risk factors:
If your blood test results show that you have prediabetes, your provider may suggest that you be retested once each year. If your results are normal, your provider may suggest getting retested every 3 years.
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American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes - 2014. Diabetes Care. January 2014;37(1):S14-S80. PMID: 24357209 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24357209.
DeFronzo RA, Abdul-Ghani M. Assessment and treatment of cardiovascular risk in prediabetes: impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose. Am J Cardiol. 2011;108(suppl):3B-24B. PMID: 21802577 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21802577.
Milman S, Crandall JP. Mechanisms of vascular complications in prediabetes. Med Clin N Am. 2011 Mar;95(2):309-25. PMID: 21281835 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21281835.
Sénéchal M, Slaght J, Bharti N, and Bouchard DR. Independent and combined effect of diet and exercise in adults with prediabetes. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2014;7:521-9. PMID: 25382981 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25382981.
Sharma MD. What is the best treatment for prediabetes? Curr Diab Rep. October 2009;9(5):335-41. PMID: 19793502 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19793502.
- Review date:
- December 07, 2016
- Reviewed by:
- Robert Hurd, MD, Professor of Endocrinology and Bioethics at Xavier University, Cincinnati, Ohio. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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