Testicular cancer is a form of male genital cancer most commonly diagnosed in those who are younger or middle-aged.
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Regular screenings to check for testicular cancer are recommended. Testicular cancer can be diagnosed through some of the following exams and tests:
- Physical exam and medical history.
- Ultrasound imaging of the scrotum.
- Blood tests to check for the presence of tumor markers alpha-fetoprotein (ATP), beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta HCG) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH).
- Biopsy to remove a small tissue sample of the testicle for examination.
Treatment options for testicular cancer may include:
Testicular cancer surgery involves inguinal orchiectomy, which is a procedure to remove the testicle through an incision in the groin. The procedure can also be part of the approach to diagnosing a testicular cancer and typically involves removal of some of the nearby lymph nodes.
Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is a state-of-the-art radiation therapy that can be used to treat testicular cancer.
Several chemotherapy drugs are FDA-approved for treatment of testicular cancer. High-dose chemotherapy in combination with stem cell transplant can also be part of treatment.
Close observation and testing after surgery for removal of a testicle may be recommended for cases of testicular cancers that have not spread beyond their origin. This approach forgoes chemotherapy or radiation therapy immediately after surgery but requires vigilance with regular follow-up blood tests and imaging tests for up to 10 years.